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Flashcards in Human Resource Development (Mod 3) Deck (34)
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Copyright Act

Governs the rules and regulations for copyright in the U.S.

Copyright is a form of protection provided by the U.S. government to authors of "original works" to prevent others from printing or otherwise duplicating distributing or vending copies of their literary, artistic and other creative expressions


Patent Act

Same principals as Copyright Act, but covers patents


Trademark Act

Same principles as Copyright Act, but covers trademarks


Exemptions to Copyright Act

Public domain: after a period of time, no one can invoke the Copyright Act to prevent another from copying, distributing or otherwise using the work

Fair use: allows the use of copyrighted work in certain circumstances, depending upon 5 factors (purpose, nature, percentage of work used, amount produced, effect on potential market value of the work)


Quality Control Tools

Process-Flow Analysis (aka flow chart: diagram of steps in process

Control chart: illustration of variations from normal in a situation over time

Cause-And-Effect Diagram (aka Ishikawa diagram, fishbone diagram): visual map to list factors thought to affect a problem or desired outcome

Scatter diagram: depicts possible relationships between two variables

Histogram: graphic representation of a single type of measurement

Check Sheets: simple visual tool used to collect and analyze data

Pareto Chart (see separate card)


Pareto Chart

Vertical bar graph on which the bar height reflects the frequency or impact; categorizes causes from frequent to least frequent; line graph accumulates results for successive causes


Bloom's Taxonomy (Six Levels of Learning)

1) Knowledge: learner can recall facts

2) Comprehension: learner can translate or interpret info

3) Application: learner can use info in new situations

4) Analysis: learner is able to break down info and explain how it fits together

5) Synthesis: learner is able to respond to new situations and trouble-shoot techniques and solutions

6) Evaluation: allows one to make judgements


Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

1) Physiological Needs

2) Safety & Security

3) Belonging & Love

4) Esteem

5) Self-Actualization


Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory

Hygiene Factors (Extrinsic): those that surround the job; environment in which employees work

Motivation Factors (Intrinsic): present in the job itself

Acceptable conditions (hygiene) will lead only to satisfaction - they cannot motivate. However, hygiene factors must be acceptable in order for motivation factors to occur.


McClelland's Theory

Some people have an intense need to achieve while others do not.


Theory X and Theory Y

Theory Y: manager believes employee dislike rigid controls and inherently want to accomplish something; "participative style"

Theory : manager believes employees inherently do not like to work and must be strictly controlled and force to work; "authoritative style"


Vroom's Expectancy Theory

Expectancy: a certain effort will lead to a particular result

Instrumentality: a specific action will lead to a specific outcome

Valence: strength of an individual's desire for a particular outcome


Equity Theory

People want to be treated fairly, and thus compare themselves to other people to see if their treatment is equitable.


Skinner's Behavioral Reinforcement Theory

Positive Reinforcement: give person a desired reward to attain desired behavior or encourage repetition

Negative Reinforcement: avoid an undesirable consequence by giving the person a reward when desired response is exhibited

Punishment: decrease in undesirable behavior because response causes something negative to occur

Extinction: no response diminishes and extinguishes behavior


Skinner's Reinforcement Schedule

Fixed interval: reinforcer after specific time passes (e.g. weekly or monthly paychecks)

Fixed ration: reinforcer after specific number of responses (e.g. piece-rate pay or sales commissions)

Variable interval: reinforcer at random times (e.g. unscheduled positive comments)

Variable ratio: reinforcer after random number of responses (e.g. random checks with praise for meeting goals)


Training vs Development

Training: providing knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) specific to a particular task or job

Development: long-term focus on preparing for future responsibilities while increasing the capacities of employees to perform their current jobs



A = Needs Assessment
D = Design
D = Develop
I = Implement
E = Evaluate


Benefits of Conducing a Needs Assessment

Can identify:
- Organization's goals and its effectiveness in reaching them
- Gaps or discrepancies between current and future performance
- Types of programs needed
- Target audience for programs
- Content based on fact rather than intuition
- Base-line information to evaluate effectiveness
- Parameters for cost-effective programs


Methords of Gathering Data During a Training Needs Assessment

Performance Appraisals
Assessment Centers
Focus Groups
Document Reviews
Advisory Committees


Can Training Solve All Problems?

Training is not the solution for employee relation problems such as poor morale, lack of motivation, lack of ability to learn. Problems resulting from non-HRD issues (e.g obsolete equipment, insufficient rewards, conflicts of values/managerial style) can be identified and referred to management


Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation & Tools to Measure Each

1) Reaction: checklists, questionnaires, interviews

2) Learning: post-measure, pre/post measures, pre/post measure with control group

3) Behavior: performance tests, critical incidents, 360-degree feedback, simulations, observations

4) Results: cost-benefit analysis, ROI analysis, progress toward organizational goals, performance appraisals


Elements of Composing Training Objectives (Design Phase)

S = Specific
M = Measurable
A = Attainable
R = Realistic
T = Timely


Implementation Seating Arrangements



What Impacts Transfer of Training?

- Interference from immediate (work) environment
- Nonsupportive organizational culture
- Impractical training programs
- Irrelevant training content
- Discomfort with change
- Separation from inspiration or support of the facilitator
- Poorly defined/delivered training
- Pressure from peers to resist change
- Newly learned behaviors are not valued or modeled by managers


Career Development Model

Career development consists of two processes:

- Career planning: actions and activities that INDIVIDUALS perform to give direction to their work life

- Career management: preparing, implementing and monitoring employees' career paths, with a primary focus on the goals of the organization

Career development takes place at the intersection of these two factors


Career Development Programs

- Employee Self-Assessment Tools
- Individual Coaching/Counseling
- Mentoring
- Internal Coaching
- External Coaching
_ Executive Coaching


Succession Planning vs Replacement Planning

Succession Planning: helps identify and foster development of high-potential employees; determines which employees might benefit from different organizational experiences and pinpoints the training or development they will need to advance in the organization. Concerned with long-range needs.

Succession plan contains: managerial position requirements; succession requirements; candidate data; appraisal of performance and development needs

Replacement Planning: concentrates on immediate needs and a "snapshot" assessment of the availability of qualified backup for key positions.


Expatriation, Repatriation, Local National, Third Party National

Expatriation: sending an employee abroad and supporting their ability to adapt to cultural changes and complete their assignment

Repatriation: process of reintegrating employee into his/her home country operations following an international assignment

Local National: hiring an employee abroad for an assignment in that country

Third Party National: an employee from another country working an assignment in another country for a company based in a third country


Leadership vs Management

Leadership = relates to the organization's mission and keeping the mission in sight and providing direction; ability of an individual to influence a group or another individual toward the achievement of goals and results

Management = coping with day-to-day operations


Blake-Mouton's Theory of Behavior (Leadership)

Uses two axes to describe behavior:
Concern for people
Concern for production (task)

Authoritarian managers
Team Leaders
Country Club Managers
Impoverished Mangers
Middle-of-the-Road Managers


Hersey-Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory of Behavior (Leadership)

Suggests that leadership style should be matched to the maturity of the employees

Leadership consists of four tasks based on employee's maturity: Delegation, Participation, Selling, Telling


Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Behavior (Leadership)

Group performance is dependent upon the interaction between leadership style and situational favorableness

Three factors determine the favorableness of leadership environment:
- Leader-membership relations
- Tast structure
- Position power

Certain leadership styles are more effective for certain situations - i.e. chance favorableness of situation


Appraisal Methods

Category rating methods: mark an employee's level of performance on a scale (graphic scale, checklist, forced choice)

Comparative method: compares the performance of each employee with the others (ranking, paired comparison, forced distribution)

Narrative methods: written narrative appraisal (essay, critical incidents, field review)

Special methods:
- MBO (management by objectives): employees help set objectives
- BARS (Behaviorally anchored rating scale): clearly describe behavior associated with each level of performance; works when many employees perform same tasks


Errors in Performance Appraisal

Halo/Horn Effect: competence or weakness in one area results in high/low marks for all categories

Recency/Primacy: appraiser gives ore weight to recent events or earlier events

Bias: appraiser's values, beliefs, prejudices distort rating

Strictness/Leniency: reluctance to give too high ratings, or not wanting to give scores too low

Central tendency: all employees rated in narrow range regardless of difference in actual performance

Contrast: comparing employees