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Flashcards in Human Resources Deck (35):

What are Mega Trends?

- Patterns of change in society
- Spanning a time frame of at least 25 years
- Permeating multiple areas of society (leisure, politics, business, demography, health care...)
- Global nature


Describe the HR Business Partner Model.

Left: Process
Right: People
Bottom: Day-to-day / Operational focus
Top: Future / Strategic Focus

Bottom left: Administrative partner (Management of firm infrastructure)
Bottom right: Employee Champion (Management of employee contribution)
Top left: Strategic Partner (Management of Strategic Human Resources)
Top right: Change Agent (Management of Transformation and Change)


What tasks does the administrative partner do?

Management of firm infrastructure:
Recruitment, payroll


What does the employee champion do?

Management of employee contribution:
Deal with issues that pop up:
- international placements
- management leadership
- employee development
=> right fit.
Hardship cases, severance pay…


What does the Strategic Partner do?

Management of Strategic Human Resources:
- advises on strategic HR issues such as availability of skilled people, low cost --> strategic enabling of right person, right spot.


What does the Change Agent do?

Management of Transformation:
Look at upcoming organisational changes – discuss with general manager what the most efficient way to do it is, communication plan, consultation with local govt or worker representatives.

Manage who talks to whom, what is the message. Every manager uses the same arguments.


Describe the HR organisation model by Dave Ulrich.

- Admin: HR service centre off site for whole organisation --> service standards, very structured, better use of staff capacity. (monotonous, boring, organisation has to deal with service standards, no personal relationship.)
- Centre of Excellence: leadership, development concepts for talent management, compensation and benefits, develops company-wide standards regarding moderl HR processes and instruments.
- HR Business Partner: The face to the customer (the organisation) - receives inquiries and complaints from managers and associates and forward it to the right person.


Describe transactional leadership.

Puppet master - main focus on:
- Management by exception (focus on mistakes and errors instead of individual strength)
- Managing processes (compliance mentality / in-role performance)
- "Instructing" and controlling employees (impedes autonomy and initiative)
- Contingent reward


What is transactional leadership good for?

Good way to achieve predetermined goals and objectives.

So good if highly predictable environment, e.g. aerospace. Need for safety --> need for processes to eliminate deviation.


What is the disadvantage of transactional leadership?

Leading to high performing teams is unlikely; unlikely to tap into extra-role performance.


What is intra-role performance about?

- Legal/formal contract --> performing one's duties for pay.
- Transactional world, management.


What is extra-role performance about?

- Psychological contract
- Transformationworld, leadership.

It is not stated in the contract.


What is transformational leadership based on?

- Identification (leader as role model)
- Inspiration (Leader conveys meaning and vision)
- Intellectual Stimulation (Leader challenges established patterns of thought)
- Individual Consideration (Leader seeks contact, gives coaching to employees)


What does transformational leadership achieve?

Tour guide - World of will: inside-out
- Change behaviour and awareness of employees
- Employees are developed individually and stimulated intellectually
- Employees are inspired to achieve their maximum performance.


When are the circumstances best for transformational leadership?

- Decisions are highly complex with many different variables involved
- Member expertise contribution is critical to success
- Task involves many different people and may reach accross multiple departments.


When are the circumstances best for transactional leadership?

- Decisions require a quick action and can be made unilaterally
- Member expertise is not required and has no bearing on success
- Task involves a safety issue of which the leader is accountable.


For transactional and transformational leadership:

What is the role of the superior?

Transactional: Efficient manager, doing the things right

Transformational: Visionary leader, doing the right things.


For transactional and transformational leadership:

What is the relationship, effect and focus?

- Transactional: Performance against rewards.
- Transformational: Individual consideration of employees; symbolic leadership.

- Transactional: Extrinsic motivation (contract)
- Transformational: Intrinsic moviation (convey meaning)

- Transactional: Stability, optimisation, security.
- Transformational: Change, innovation, re-adjustment


What is management?

Managers work with things and numbers:
- results
- planning
- optimisation
- controlling
- methods
- organising


What is leadership?

Leaders work with people and feelings:
- Identification
- Perspective/vision, inspiration, motivation
- Development
- Appreciation


What is the effectiveness grid?

X- axis: Transactional leadership - low, mid, high
Y-axis: Transformational leadership - low, mid, high.

Bottom left: Laissez-faire: Bankruptcy, merger situation.
Top left: Emotional empathy: start-up (have vision but no processes)
Top middle: challenge and support (sweet spot)
Top right: Reward and punish (few can sustain this): elite militarly units rescuing hostages.
Bottom right: Traditional industry that is functioning well.


What does laissez-faire leadership lead to?

- Confusion, frustration, conflicts, performance deficits.

Leadership: disinterested, not solving conflicts, absent, no goal orientation, no feedback.


Describe the Ofman Grid.

Top left: core quality
--> too much -->
Top right: Pitfall
--> Positive opposite -->
Bottom right: Challenge
--> Too much -->
Bottom left: Allergy (hard to work with these people)
--> Positive opposite -->
Top left (core quality).


Provide an example of using the Ofman Grid.

Core quality: Assertiveness
Pitfall: Dominant/inflexible
Challenge: Openness to other solutions, creat setting where everyone contributes.
Allergy: Laissez-faire, no own point of view.


Why is feedback economically useful?

There is information asymmetry - others know "something more" about ourselves.
Gaining this extra knowledge about ourselves will alleviate this asymmetry and grant us extra power, leeway, influence, options etc.
Hence, seeking feedback is economically useful.


What is the ACCA framework?

Awareness - comprehension - commitment - action


What are the basic feedback rules?

Observation - Effect - Break - Concrete ideas.


What is attraction

= Process of finding qualified job applicants.
Goal: finding the right number of applicants (not too many, not too few.
Mindset: job = product. Market the job to potential candidates.


What are ways to attract applicants?

- good for students and apprentices
- direct contact to possible applicants
- helps overcome information asymmetry
- high cost

Personal recommendation

Social media:
- for generation Y and subsequent, this is a basis for being in business.


Active search, web and print, corporate social responsibility, survey (great place to work, employer rankings...)


Describe the process of selection.

1. Identify vacancy (specialist department requests job vacancy)
2. Job Posting (done by HR)
3. Pre-selection (HR scans internal talent pools, application tool, social media, headhunter offerings)
4. Long list: List al realistic potential applicants, rank, then share and discuss with specialist department.
5. Short list (3-4 people).
6. Final selection through intervews, tests, assessment centres.


What are the ways to plan personnel needs?

Direct employees (blue collar): concrete planning based on technical process times and volumes of production.

Indirect employees:
- plan to scale (forecase turnover...)
- Project planning
- Activitiy based planning (very rare - from scratch)
- Management Position planning: Replacement chart (name to box), Skills inventory (Competency Management).


What are BARS?

Behaviour Anchored Ratin Scales (BARS)
- Make a list of 5 critical incidents in the job, ask how a possible job incumbent would successfully handle/overcome these incidents.
- Relate these behavioural descriptions to competencies. = BARS.


How do you use BARS to assess a candidate?

STAR technique:
Situation/Taks - Action - Result

Assumpton: past behaviour is a predictor for future behaviour.


What does a sophisticated interview look like?

1. Some chit chat
2. BARS and STARS (70-80%)
3. Plus well-founded psychological techniques to see personality drivers.


Why might interview bias occur?

- Recency/primacy effect (1st and last candidate / impression)
- Like-me effect, stereotypes --> cloning
- Halo-effect (1 issue overshadows everything)
- Tendency to be mild/tough
- Mood

Bias may be (partially prevented by proper training for interviewers.