Flashcards in Human rights and political intervention Deck (41)
What are human rights?
Moral principles that underline standards of human behaviour which every person is inherently entitled to because they are human
What is meant by 'Egalitarian'?
Believing in the principle that all people are equal and deserve equal rights
Defne 'geopolitical intervention'
When one or more country involves themselves in another's political issues
Name six motives of geopolitical intervention
- Protect human rights
- Overthrow a corrupt political leader
- Gain authority or impose ideologies
- Provide aid
- Access resources or trade agreements
- Protect trade routes or encourage investment
What is a trade embargo? Positives and negatives?
- A trade ban used to force a country to change its politics
- Can ban military supplies/ weapons
- Hinders economic development
What is development aid? Positives and negatives?
- Financial aid given for long-term economic development
- UK made legally binding agreement to donate 0.7% of GNI to aid
- Not always used for intended purpose and may never be paid back
What is military aid? Positives and negatives?
- Donations of money, aid, military supplies and expertise to protect borders, terrorism and drug and people trafficking
- Donor countries spend up to 0.7% of GNI to support military forces
- 'War on terror' masked human rights abuses
What is military action? Positives and negatives?
- Direct: air strikes
- Indirect: assistance/ supplies
- Undermines national governments
Describe the abuse of human rights in Vietnam
- People approaching children in ethnic minorities for 'vocational training'
- Slave labour, allowed to go the bathroom 8 minutes a day total, no wages in a small room with other children, beaten for doing it wrong
- 6am-midnight work
- Vietnamese mothers sell their infants
- Vietnamese girls sold to Chinese men for sex trafficking
Why is there legal confusing over the human rights abuses in Vietnam?
- Internal trafficking only recognised in 2011
- Law made in 2012 but with no guidelines on how to use it
- Internal traffickers not recognised as criminals and so are given administrative sanctions e.g. fine and factory closed down
Describe human rights violations for those working in Nike sweatshops in Indonesia
- Physical and mental abuse
- 10,000 mostly women labourers earn 50 cents an hour
- Fired for taking sick leave even with a doctor's note
- Six females made to stand in the blazing sun for faily to meet demand
- Nike blames pre-existing contracts
What is the UN declaration of human rights? How does it promote human rights? What are the controversies?
- First international agreement of basic human rights following WW2 and translated in over 500 languages
- Framework for foreign policy statements to explain economic or military intervention
- Not legally binding and so hard to enforce, bias towards civil political liberties and not socio-political rights due to heavy Western influence
What is the European convention of human rights? How does it promote human rights? What are the controversies?
- Established court for 47 member countries and citizens to achieve greater unity
- Legally binding
- Undermines national sovereignty and takes a long time to make decisions
What is the Geneva convention? How does it promote human rights? What are the controversies?
- 4 treaties and 3 protocols to enforce international law in times of conflict , 196 member countries, legally binding
- Rights of POW, non-combatants and wounded soldiers
- Doesn't address use of warfare, 82% of countries found to have breached rules
What is the 1998 UK Human Rights Act? How does it promote human rights? What are the controversies?
- 15 rights and freedoms to everyone in the UK
- Reduces time waiting for ECHR
- Failed to protect Emergency workers in Syria 2016
What does ATSI stand for?
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders
Close the gap initiative:
2005-2012: Life expectancy gap closed by (1) for men but only 0.1 for women
1998-2012: Circulatory disease decreased by (2)
(3): Death rates from avoidable causes three times greater
1998-2012: Infant mortality reduced (4)
1 - 0.8
2 - 45%
3 - 2008-2012
4 - 64%
What education issues are there in ATSI communities?
- 20% of those eligible not enrolled
- stolen generation left people suspicious of authorities
- 2015: 30% lacked basic literacy
- 2011: 54% achieved A-Level equivalent qualifications
Australia's prime minister:
- 2016 motion for (1)
1. All people to be treated with (2)
2. (3) immigration policy
3. (4) ATSI
4. Maintain a (5) and open society
5. Denounce racial (6)
1 - Anti-racism
2 - Respect
3 - Non-discriminatory
4 - Reconcile
5 - Culturally diverse
6 - Intolerance
When did women get the right to vote in Australia
1902 - right to vote
1971 - ATSI women right to vote
1919 women's right to (1) before Soviet invasion in (2)
1950s abolishment of gender (3)
1980s - Taliban women from education and (4)
Women can't be seen by a male doctor but women aren't allowed to work
1 - vote
2 - 1979
3 - separation
4 - leaving home without a chaperone
Full control of lives by (1) without freedom, (2)% die from no government help. 100% focus on government gain and (3). Geopolitically (4)
1 - government
2 - 10
3 - propoganda
4 - isolated
First free election in (1) and armed response to (2), higher income advancing (3) embracing (4) and second in Asia for (5)
1 - 1987
2 - protesters
3 - economy
4 - capitalism
5 - democracy/ freedom of speech
Define 'sovereign wealth funds'
Government owned investment funds and banks typically associated with China and countries with a large revenue from oil e.g. Qatar
What are the six main IGOs involved in political intervention?
- Because there are so many major players, this has led to competition rather than co-operation which can hinder aid
- World Bank
- UN conference on trade and development
What are the two main groups of NGOs who are involved in geopolitical intervention?
- Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch/ primarily concerned with human rights
- Oxfam and Medicins Sans Frontiers/ focused on development and aid
Describe Amnesty International
Founded in 1961
Focus on exposure of human rights abuses
Provides global education on human rights
Describe Human Rights Watch
Founded in 1978
Monitors former Soviet Union's compliance with Helsinki Accord to reduce Cold War tension by shaming non-compliant governments through media and policymakers
Describe Oxfam in terms of their geo-political intervention
Founded in 1942
Deal with hunger and starvation during WW2, main targets to provide development out of poverty, assist those affected by conflict and natural disasters and campaigns