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Flashcards in Measuring human development Deck (45)
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1

Name four ways we know how developed a country is?

- GDP
- GDP per capita
- GDP per capita based on PPP
- GNI

2

What is GDP?

The total value of goods and services produced every year

3

What is GDP per capita?

GDP divided by population to calculate mean wealth

4

What is GDP per capita based on Purchasing Power Parity?

Differences in cost of living usually compared to the USA or between countries

5

What is GNI?

Total wealth created by a country including exports

6

Describe the North-South divide by Willy Brandt in 1981

- W. German councillor created the Brandt line report to demonstrate the development gap
- Wealthy North and Poor South
- Concern for two-thirds of the population living in poverty

7

Why can the Brandt line be criticised?

- Out dated and simplistic
- Economic development is a complex pattern as some parts of nations are considerably wealthy e.g. Shanghai
- Some countries decline in development
- Rapid development and rising incomes in 'poor south'

8

Human Development Index:
- Devised by (1), a (2) index figure including life expectancy, education and (3)
- No account for (4) or (5) engagement, security or freedom of speech
- Data collected is (6)

1 - the UN
2 - single
3 - GDP per capita by US$ PPP
4 - environmental quality
5 - democratic
6 - statistical

9

What is the Happy Planet Index equation?

EW x (LE / EF)
Experienced Wellbeing
Life Expectancy
Ecological Footprint

10

Describe the 2012 HPI

- No country has a high and sustained EW but nine were close including the Caribbean
- High incomes reduced by EF
- USA (largest economy) ranked 105th out of 151

11

Human Freedom Index:
- State of human freedom from (1) components
- Individual dignity defined as (2)
- Co published by four institutes of (3)
- (4) indicators, covering (5) countries
- Scale of 1-10, average score in 2015 was (6) which is a decrease from 2014

1 - personal, economic and civil
2 - negative liberty
3 - freedom
4 - 79
5 - 159
6 - 6.93

12

Why was Costa Rica ranked the happiest place to live in 2014?

- Abolished army in 1949 to relocate funds to education, health and pensions
- More GDP spending in education than the UK in 2012
- World leading country in environmental protection e.g. tax on fossil fuel and forest protection schemes
- In 2015, 99% of its energy was from renewable sources

13

Sharia Law:
- Fundamental law of (1)
- Theft is punishable by (2)
- Conversion from Islam is punishable by (3)
- A woman may have (4) husband(s) but a man can have up to (5) wives
- A man may beat his wife for (6)

1 - Islam
2 - Amputation of right hand
3 - Death
4 - 1
5 - 4
6 - defiance

14

What five fundamentals does Sharia Law say world and religious life depend on?

Preservation of
Religion, Life, Intellect, Language and Wealth

15

Describe Bosnia under Evo Morales:
- President since (1) from the (2) minority
- Communist or Capitalist?
- Extreme poverty has decreased by (3)%
- Still one of (4)'s poorest countries

1 - 2005
2 - indigenous
Communist
3 - 43%
4 - South America's

16

What two case studies would you use to describe fundamental differences in development?

Sharia Law and Bosnia under Evo Morales

17

Why could using GDP, GDPpp, GDPpp on PPP and GNI not be the best ways to represent the world as a whole?

They only consider one dimension of economics and other methods include a range of statistics

18

What four factors does the perception of development depend on?

Values, Ethnicity, Ideology and Morals

19

Development tends to be considered as the enrichment of wellbeing through;
- Improving (1) rather than assuming economic growth and wellbeing
- Giving opportunities to develop abilities e.g. (2)
- Creating (3) to promote individual freedom e.g. (4)

1 - individual lives
2 - promoting higher education
3 - Girl's education

20

Describe Bolivia's development strategy since 2006

- Law of Mother Earth (Nature is a dynamic system of an undivided community and so they respond to climate change)
- Less agricultural production and more rural-urban migration, water shortages
- Rights of indigenous tribes not to be affected by infrastructure
- Economic change previously based on mining
- 40% have no sanitation

21

Who ranked first and bottom two on the HPI?

1 - Costa Rica. 2 - Mexico
139 - Luxembourg. 140 - Chad

22

Who ranked first and bottom two on the HDI?

1 - Norway/ 2 - Switzerland
170 - Ivory Coast/ 171 - Malawi

23

Who ranked first and bottom two on the freedom index?

1 - Hong Kong/ 2 - Singapore
179 - Venezuela/ 180 - N. Korea

24

1960 - 1 billion industrialised and (1) developing
2010 - (2) poorest nations, (3) emerging and 1bn industrialised/ more development but greater (4)
2050 - 2bn developed, 3bn emerging due to (5) and 4bn poorest

1 - 2 billion
2 - 2 billion
3 - 4 billion
4 - development gap
5 - green technology

25

Give six reasons why education is important

- Development of healthcare and hygiene
- Rights of the 21st century
- Family planning
- Decision making
- Skiled workforce
- Quality of life

26

What five factors can prevent access to education?

- Gender
- Wealth
- Class
- Disability
- Ethnicity

27

- Education aid is (1)% lower than in 2009
- In 2016, (2) aimed to train 238k teachers worldwide
- In poor countries, up to (3)% of disabled children can't access an education
- Many girls miss school due to a lack of (4)

1 - 4
2 - Global Partnership for Education
3 - 95
4 - Menstrual hygiene

28

How is UNESCO improving education?

- Ensuring every child receives education as a fundamental human right
- Female literacy is less than a quarter of male literacy in Africa and S. Asia
- S. America has the greatest overall expenditure
- Total number of projects is greater in Africa

29

Methods of measuring development:
- BL
- GDP
- HDI
- PQLI
- HPI

- Brandt line
- Gross Domestic Product
- Human Development Index
- Physical Quality of Life Index
- Happy Planet Index

30

Methods of measuring development:
- CPI
- NoD
- MP/IA
- SPI
- GII

- Corruption Perception Index
- Number of Doctors
- Mobile Phone/ Internet Access
- Social Progress Index
- Gender Inequality Index