Flashcards in Humanistic Approach Deck (21)
What is the humanistic approach?
- focuses on conscious experience and personal responsibility
- the human need to strive for personal growth is important
What are the key parts of the humanistic approach?
- free will
- self actualisation
- Maslow hierarchy of needs
- focus on the self
- role of conditions of worth
- influence on counselling
Describe what the humanistic approach says about free will
- can choose our own thoughts and behaviour
- recognises were influences by biological and environmental factors
- but we can reject them
Why does this approach reject scientific models?
- we can’t establish general laws
- were unique
- should study subjective experience
- person centred approach
Describe the idea of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
- human needs exist in a hierarchy
- basic needs at bottom
- higher needs at top
- self actualisation is highest level
- 4 levels below must be met first to reach SA
- can only move up if lower level is met
What is self actualisation?
- becoming all that we are capable of
- can be achieved in many ways e.g through work
- not everyone can reach SA
Describe what Maslow’s hierarchy looks like (bottom to top)
1. Physiological needs: food, water, warmth, rest
2. Safety needs: security, safety
3. Belongingness and love needs: intimate relationships, friends
4. Esteem needs: prestige, feeling of accomplishment
5. Self actualisation: achieving ones full potential including creative activities
What key theorist argues focus on self, congruence and the role of conditions of worth?
What does Rogers argue about the focus on self?l I oh
I’ll a- for personal growth, our concept of self needs to match ideal self
- develop a sense of self in childhood
- formed due to interactions with parents
- sense of self: model of who we are and capable of
- includes self esteem
What is congruence and incongruence?
- congruence: similarity between sense of self and ideal self
- incongruence: difference between sense of self and ideal self
What is conditional and unconditional love and affection?
- conditional positive regard: only accepted if you do what others want you to do
- unconditional positive regard: person is accepted regardless of who they are or what they do
What is a consequence of conditional positive regard?
- develop conditions of worth
- believe conditions from significant others have to be in place to be accepted
- conditional parental love can cause psychological issues
Describe the impact Roger has had on the influence of counselling psychology
- Rogers: problems are a result of conditions of worth
- influence client centred therapy
- p is seen as expert of their condition
- therapy is non directive
- p is not called patient, they’re called client
- supportive and non judgement atmosphere
- therapist needs to provide genuineness, empathy and unconditional positive regard
What does the new type of therapy that’s developed from Rogers ideas aim to do?
- increase feelings of self worth
- reduce level of incongruence
- make client more fully functioning
What are the strengths of the humanistic approach?
- supporting research
What is the supporting research for the humanistic approach?
- Harter (1996)
- studied teenagers
- conditional parental love = not liking themselves
- those who made a ‘false self’ (pretended to be what parents wanted) = more likely to have depression
- supports HA: conditional love influences development of self and incongruence has negative affects
How is the humanistic approach holistic?
- looks at unique experiences
- doesn’t break behaviour down into smaller components
- e.g biological breaks down behaviour to genes and neurotransmitters (reductionist)
- by being holistic we can incorporate ideas from multiple approaches into treatments
- e.g drug and talking therapy to treat depression
- more likely to be effective
What are the limitations of the humanistic approach?
- limited application
- cultural bias
How does the humanistic approach have limited application?
- little real world application
- besides rogerian therapy and Maslow’s hierarchy explaining motivation at work it has limited impact
- lacks sound evidence base
- loose set of abstract concepts rather than a comprehensive theory
- better to use other approaches
- e.g cognitive - practical app: CBT (highly effective)
How is the humanistic approach idiographic?
- methods used are unscientific
- emphasises p’s experience not general laws
- difficult to test if incongruence and conditions of worth affects adult life
- difficult to measure as they’re vague
- e.g self actualisation is unique to each p so there’s no objective measurement
- lacks evidence = can’t test for accuracy