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Flashcards in Humanistic Approach Deck (21)
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1

What is the humanistic approach?

- focuses on conscious experience and personal responsibility
- the human need to strive for personal growth is important

2

What are the key parts of the humanistic approach?

- free will
- self actualisation
- Maslow hierarchy of needs
- focus on the self
- congruence
- role of conditions of worth
- influence on counselling

3

Describe what the humanistic approach says about free will

- can choose our own thoughts and behaviour
- recognises were influences by biological and environmental factors
- but we can reject them

4

Why does this approach reject scientific models?

- we can’t establish general laws
- were unique
- should study subjective experience
- person centred approach

5

Describe the idea of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

- human needs exist in a hierarchy
- basic needs at bottom
- higher needs at top
- self actualisation is highest level
- 4 levels below must be met first to reach SA
- can only move up if lower level is met

6

What is self actualisation?

- becoming all that we are capable of
- can be achieved in many ways e.g through work
- not everyone can reach SA

7

Describe what Maslow’s hierarchy looks like (bottom to top)

1. Physiological needs: food, water, warmth, rest
2. Safety needs: security, safety
3. Belongingness and love needs: intimate relationships, friends
4. Esteem needs: prestige, feeling of accomplishment
5. Self actualisation: achieving ones full potential including creative activities

8

What key theorist argues focus on self, congruence and the role of conditions of worth?

Rogers

9

What does Rogers argue about the focus on self?l I oh

I’ll a- for personal growth, our concept of self needs to match ideal self
- develop a sense of self in childhood
- formed due to interactions with parents
- sense of self: model of who we are and capable of
- includes self esteem

10

What is congruence and incongruence?

- congruence: similarity between sense of self and ideal self
- incongruence: difference between sense of self and ideal self

11

What is conditional and unconditional love and affection?

- conditional positive regard: only accepted if you do what others want you to do
- unconditional positive regard: person is accepted regardless of who they are or what they do

12

What is a consequence of conditional positive regard?

- develop conditions of worth
- believe conditions from significant others have to be in place to be accepted
- conditional parental love can cause psychological issues

13

Describe the impact Roger has had on the influence of counselling psychology

- Rogers: problems are a result of conditions of worth
- influence client centred therapy
- p is seen as expert of their condition
- therapy is non directive
- p is not called patient, they’re called client
- supportive and non judgement atmosphere
- therapist needs to provide genuineness, empathy and unconditional positive regard

14

What does the new type of therapy that’s developed from Rogers ideas aim to do?

- increase feelings of self worth
- reduce level of incongruence
- make client more fully functioning

15

What are the strengths of the humanistic approach?

- supporting research
- holistic

16

What is the supporting research for the humanistic approach?

- Harter (1996)
- studied teenagers
- conditional parental love = not liking themselves
- those who made a ‘false self’ (pretended to be what parents wanted) = more likely to have depression
- supports HA: conditional love influences development of self and incongruence has negative affects

17

How is the humanistic approach holistic?

- looks at unique experiences
- doesn’t break behaviour down into smaller components
- e.g biological breaks down behaviour to genes and neurotransmitters (reductionist)
- by being holistic we can incorporate ideas from multiple approaches into treatments
- e.g drug and talking therapy to treat depression
- more likely to be effective

18

What are the limitations of the humanistic approach?

- limited application
- idiographic
- cultural bias

19

How does the humanistic approach have limited application?

- little real world application
- besides rogerian therapy and Maslow’s hierarchy explaining motivation at work it has limited impact
- lacks sound evidence base
- loose set of abstract concepts rather than a comprehensive theory
- better to use other approaches
- e.g cognitive - practical app: CBT (highly effective)

20

How is the humanistic approach idiographic?

- methods used are unscientific
- emphasises p’s experience not general laws
- difficult to test if incongruence and conditions of worth affects adult life
- difficult to measure as they’re vague
- e.g self actualisation is unique to each p so there’s no objective measurement
- lacks evidence = can’t test for accuracy

21

How is the humanistic approach culturally bias?

- based on western individualistic cultures
- e.g self actualisation focuses on individual
- in a collectivist culture the group is more important
- e.g interdependence and community is valued
- not a universal explanation