Pressure, force, area triangle
 force is weight usually lbs
 pressure is psi
 area is just that pie x d2 divided by 4
Power supplies
prime mover (electric motor) pumps reservoir
Control Device
directional pressure control flow control
Output
actuator (rotary/linear) loads
Pressure
 the force on a unit of area
 pressure decreases when flow is increased
 produced by resistance to flow
Pascall’s Law
relation between force, pressure & area remember triangle
Pressure creation
resistance to flow not a pump, pump creates flow
Intensifiers
contained fluid in two different areas in a cylinder used to efficiently generate a high pressure fluid output pressure is considerably greater than input pressure.
Atmospheric Pressure
how much weight is sitting on you right now from the air, etc… 14.7 psi at sea level
Differential Cylinders
cylinders with different areas on each side of piston remember the area loss from the rod
Nondifferential cylinders
areas on each side are the same most two Rod cylinders
Load Capacities
the larger the area, the larger the force for the same pressure
Extension
on extension, the pressure acts on the area of the piston
Retraction
on retraction the pressure is the piston area minus the rod area (annulus area)
Advantages of Hydraulics

Disadvantages of Hydraulics

2 to 1 cylinder
the cross section area of the rod occupies exactly half the area of the cap end side
Flow
movement of a liquid produced by a pump or a pressure drop across a hole the greater the pressure difference across a hole the greater the flow the ratio of units/time. It can be expresses as velocity (ft/min, ft/sec) flow info a differential cylinder does not equal flow out
Flow Triangle
 speed/flow/area relationship
 V/t or Q stands for flow in cubic inches/minutes only S stands for the speed in inches/minutes
 A stands for the area in squares inches
Hydraulic Intensifier Math Question

Hydraulic Cylinder Math

Porta Power Math
Steps