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Flashcards in hydrotherapy Deck (86)
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1

what is hydrotherapy

the use of water for therapeutic purposes

2

What is thermo-hydrotherapy (warm water immersion)?

use of water at temps above the immersed body skin temp (> 93 deg F)

3

what is cryo-hydrotherapy (cold water immersion)?

use of water at temps below the immersed body skin temp (< 90 deg F)

4

what temp is the burn tank kept at?

93 deg (thermoneutral)

5

Indications of hydrotherapy?

-superficial cooling or heating
-wound care
-water exercise (NOT aquatic therapy)
-pain control
-edema control

6

3 advantages of hydrotherapy?

-provides perfect contact with skin (contoured areas)
-does not need to be fastened to the body
-allows movement during heating or cooling

7

Disadvantages of hydrotherapy when applied to extremities?

-distal extremity must be in dependent position
-may aggravate edema

8

What is important to consider for hydrotherapy

-edema counteracted by compression of hydrostatic pressure with immersion

9

specific heat

capacity to store heat

10

thermal conductivity

capacity of a substance to conduct heat

11

specific heat of water

4.19

12

specific heat and thermal conductivity of water is less or greater than air?

greater

13

physical properties of water?

-buoyancy
-resistance
-hydrostatic pressure

14

what is buoyancy

an anti-gravitational force or vertical upward thrust against gravity

15

what is an upward force on an object immersed in a fluid that is equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces, enabling it to float or to appear lighter

buoyancy

16

what does buoyancy promote

relative state of weightlessness

17

buoyancy is dependent on

-percent of body immersed
-specific gravity or weight density of the human body is less than water

18

Buoyancy on water helps to do what?

-decrease stress and compression on weight bearing structures

19

what is resistance-viscosity

a force counter to the direction of movement, controls flow of movement

20

resistance-viscosity increases with what

speed of motion and area of contact

21

a fast moving body results in what type of resistance

high

22

paddles and fins increase what

frontal area and increase resistance

23

slow moving body results in what type of resistance

moderate resistance

24

limbs straight in front does what

decrease frontal area and decrease resistance

25

what is hydrostatic pressure

the pressure exerted by a fluid on a body immersed in the fluid

26

pressure increases with what for hydrostatic pressure?

fluid depth

27

control over physical properties of water affects dosing and therapeutic goals by

hydrostatic pressure, buoyancy force, resistance

28

how hydrostatic pressure controls over physical properties of water affects dosing and therapeutic goals

increased or decreased by varying depth of immersion

29

how buoyancy controls over physical properties of water affects dosing and therapeutic goals

increased or decreased by varying % of body immersion

30

how resistance controls over physical properties of water affects dosing and therapeutic goals

-body movement velocity
-body surface area
-use of electrical turbine

31

benefits of mechanical properties of hydrotherapy

-enhances wound care
-enhances control of edema
-weightlessness effect

32

water pressure and turbulence force of turbines used for cleansing and debridement is used to enhance

wound care

33

Hydrostatic pressure causes limb compression and enhances

edema

34

what benefits body unloading and painful weight bearing that may occur on land

Weightlessness effect, Buoyancy

35

physiological effects of hydrotherapy

-cleansing (lavage)
-musculoskeletal
-cardiovascular
-Respiratory
-renal
-psychological

36

Musculoskeletal effects of hydrotherapy are?

-buoyancy decreases weight bearing
-resistance provides force for strengthening
-Hydrostatic pressure increases resting muscle blood flow when immersed up to the neck

37

buoyancy decreases weight bearing but is depending on what

depth of immersion

38

water at waist level is what percent unweighted?

50%

39

resistance provides for strengthening is dependent on what two things

-speed of movement and surface area

40

greater the speed and surface area equals what

greater resistance

41

hydrostatic pressure increases resting muscle blood flow by what percent

100-225%

42

hydrostatic pressure improves muscular performance by

increasing oxygen availability & waste removal from cells, thus promoting more effective muscular training

43

is hydrotherapy effective for adults or children

both

44

relaxing or invigorating is depending on what?

temperature

45

warmer temperatures does what?

relax

46

cooler temperatures does what?

invigorate

47

during superficial heating or cooling energy transfer by

conduction and convection

48

conduction is

still water and body part

49

convection is when

water circulated around treated body area

50

convection uses

electric turbines

51

cryo-hydrotherapy physiological effects are

-vasoconstriction
-decreased blood flow
-decreased metabolism
-invigorating/ enhancing energy

52

cryo-therapy therapeutic effects are

-decreased post exercise muscle soreness
-enhances post-exercise recovery

53

thermo-hydrotherapy physiological effects

-vasodilation
-increase blood flow
-increase metabolism
-enhance sedating

54

thermo-hydrotherapy therapeutic effects

-decrease pain
-enhance labor
-enhance wound care

55

cold water may reduce what

inflammation, reducing pain

56

pain control using hydrotherapy

-high level sensory stimulation to peripheral mechanoreceptors to gate the transmission of pain
-cold water. reduce inflammation
-increased ease of movement with water immersion
-decreased weight bearing may reduce joint compression
-temperature (hot/cold)

57

edema control requires

deep immersion

58

what temp of water should you avoid with edema?

hot

59

how does cold water control edema

vasoconstriction and reduce vascular permeability

60

hydrotherapy controls edema by

hydrostatic pressure

61

contraindications for local immersion hydrotherapy

-maceration around a wound
-bleeding

62

contraindications for full body immersion

-cardiac instability
-infectious conditions may spread via water
-bowel and bladder incontinence
-severe epilepsy
-suicidality

63

precautions for local immersion (peripheral limb)

-impaired thermal sensation in immersed area
-infection in immersed area
-confusion or impaired cognition
-recent skin grafts

64

precautions for full body in hot/very warm water

-pregnancy
-MS
-poor thermal regulation

65

precautions for full body immersion for any temp

-confusion or disorientation
-alcohol ingestion
-limited strength, endurance, balance, ROM
-Medications
-urinary incontinence
-fear of water
-respiratory problems

66

adverse effects of hydrotherapy

-drowning
-burns, fainting and bleeding (vitals)
-hyponatremia
-infection
-aggravation of edema
-asthma exacerbation

67

general application technique of hydrotherapy

-evaluate pt
-determine appropriateness & safety
-select appropriate form of hydrotherapy
-explain procedure and rationale to the pt
-apply hydrotherapy
-when treatment is complete, assess outcome
-document

68

types of whirlpools

-extremity tanks
-low and high boy tanks

69

extremity tanks

distal extremities

70

low and high boy tanks

-larger body parts, full limbs

71

low and high boy tanks can have immersion up to

waist

72

cool whirlpool is used for

reduce inflammation

73

tepid water is used for

exercise

74

neutral warmth water for whirlpool is used for

-control tone for near based hypertonicity
-circulatory, sensory, cardiac disorders

75

mild warmth whirlpool usage

burns (after epithelialization)
promotes mobility and relaxation

76

hot whirlpool usage

pain control, increase soft tissue extensibility
-large areas

77

very hot whirlpool usage

pain control, increase soft tissue extensibility
-limited body areas
-OA, RA non acute stage

78

whirlpool is an effective medium for what?

-heat transfer
-cleansing & debriding open wounds
-exercise

79

During whirlpool weaker muscles can do what?

move more freely than on dry land

80

Whirlpools allow what while heat is being applied

movement

81

during whirlpool pt can be safely and securely what?

positioned

82

disadvantages of whirlpool?

-size of the tank limits the amount of exercise and the size of the treated area
-large quantity of water used
-risk of infection
-cost & time of cleaning
-cost of heating water
-time to assist pt dress/undress & position in whirlpool

83

whirlpool must be what for safety

properly grounded

84

what needs to have close attention when using hydrotherapy

infection control

85

If pt is left alone with hydrotherapy there needs to be what?

call bell

86

what needs to be documented when using hydrotherapy

-type of hydrotherapy
-pt. position or activities
-water temp
-treatment duration
-response to intervention
-IF possible: fluid pressure, water additives