Intro to physical agents Flashcards
what is a physical agent ?
any of the various means of applying energy and materials to patients
What is physical agents also referred as?
physical modality or biophysical agent
A physical agent includes what?
heat, cold, water, pressure, sound, electromagnetic radiation, light and electrical currents
What is the role of physical agents?
to COMPLEMENT other physical, medical, and surgical interventions with minimal to no side effects
What therapeutic effects do physical agents want to achieve?
decrease pain, increase ROM, improve tissue healing, improve muscle activation
what are the 3 categories of physical agents
Thermal, Mechanical, & Electromagnetic
Can a physical agent fall into more than one category?
yes, depends on system used
What do thermal physical agents do?
transfer energy to a patient to produce an increase/decrease in tissue temp
An increase in tissue temp causes what?
increase circulation, metabolic rate, and soft tissue extensibility or decrease pain
A decrease tissue temp causes what?
decrease circulation, metabolic rate or pain
Types of thermal PA
Deep heating agents, superficial heating agents, cooling agents
clinical examples of deep heating agents
Ultrasound and diathermy
Clinical examples of superficial heating agents
hot packs, paraffin
clinical examples of cooling agents
What do mechanical physical agents do?
apply mechanical force to increase/decrease pressure on the body
Types of mechanical physical agents?
Traction, compression, water, sound
Clinical examples of traction
clinical examples of compression
Elastic bandages, stockings
Clinical examples of water
Clinical examples of sound
What does Electromagnetic PA do?
utilize application of electromagnetic energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation and electrical current
Electromagnetic PA utilize application of electromagnetic energy in the form of what?
electromagnetic radiation & electrical current
Vacation of the frequency and intensity of electromagnetic radiation changes what?
effects and depth of penetration
what can Vacation of the frequency and intensity of electromagnetic radiation changes effect and depth of penetration do?
sensory and motor responses to control pain or increase muscle strength and control
Types of electromagnetic PA
Electromagnetic field and electrical currents
Clinical examples of electromagnetic field
Clinical examples of electrical currents
What are general contraindications for PA
Pregnancy Malignancy Pacemaker/ other implanted electronic device Impaired sensation Impaired mental status
what are 3 reasons why PA fall out of favor?
- Lack of evidence to support effectiveness
- Greater effectiveness with other treatment options
- Laziness on the part of the community using the PA
What are the 4 things that need to be considered when choosing a PA
Goals and effects of treatment
Contraindications & precautions
Evidence for PA use
Cost, convenience and availability
Top 3 requirements for cost effective use of PA
- Assess and analyze the presenting problem
- Know when physical agents can be an effective form of tx
- Know when and how to use PA most effectively
- Reassess tx often & adjust POC accordingly
what does physical agents have direct effects on?
LEVEL OF IMPAIRMENT that can prompt improvements over the level of functional limitation and disability
Optimally PA are used in conjunction with or in preparation for what ?
- Therapeutic exercise
- Functional training
Purpose of PA ?
Increase efficacy of the intervention
Treat inflammatory conditions that are results of what?
- Surgical procedures
- Problematic healing
Treatments of inflammatory conditions are?
PA can reduce/eliminate soft tissue what?
inflammation or circulatory dysfunction
PA can increase the healing rate of ?
Soft tissue injury
PA can modulate?
PA can modify ?
PA can increase connective tissue what?
Extensibility and length
PA can remodel
PA can treat
When tissue damage occurs due to trauma or disease, the response is what?
generally similar and predictable
the 4 primary determinants to the outcome of any injury?
- type and extent of injury
- Regenerative capacity of tissue involved
- Vascular supply to injured site
- Extent of damage to the extracellular framework
When selected and applied appropriately, PA can? (5)
- Accelerate the completion and resolution of the phases of tissue healing
- Stimulate necessary processes to resume if they are stopped
- Accelerate overall recovery
- Improve final patient outcome
- Minimize risk of adverse effects from delayed or incomplete healing
When selected and applied INAPPROPRIATELY, PAs may ? (4)
- prolong inflammation
- Increase severity of associated symptoms
- Prevent or delay healing
- Increase probability of adverse consequences and therefore, a poor overall pt outcome
what do clinicians need to understand to choice PA appropriately?
- physiology of inflammation and healing: stages of healing
- Patho behind impairments
- Biomechanics of affected area
- Effects of immobilization and therapeutic interventions on healing process
- how PA will modify the present level of healing
How do PA’s assist in decreasing inflammation and increasing tissue healing by?
Thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic
How does thermal PA decrease inflammation and increasing tissue healing?
Change the rate of circulation and rate of chemical reactions
How does mechanical PA decrease inflammation and increasing tissue healing?
control motion and alter fluid flow
How does electromagnetic PA decrease inflammation and increasing tissue healing?
Alter cell function particularly membrane permeability and transport
3 phases of inflammation
inflammation, proliferation, maturation
4 things that happen during inflammation phase?
- clot formation
4 things that happen during proliferation phase?
- fibroplasia/ collagen production
- Wound contracture
3 things that happens during maturation phase
- Collagen synthesis/ lysis balance
- collagen fiber orientation
- Healed injury
Inflammation stage prepares wound for what?