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Flashcards in hypertension Deck (39)
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1

name 3 thiazide diuretics

hydrochlorothiazide
chlorothiazide
metolazone (thiazide like diuretic)

2

what do you have to monitor with thiazides?

serum K!

3

where do thiazides work and what do they do?

on the descending tubule and increase Na/H2O excretion

4

what are loops good for?

acute pulm edema and hypercalcemia

5

are loops good for HTN?

nope. too fast acting, and too much risk for hypovolemia (good for HTN w/ kidney dysfunction)

6

name 4 loops

furosemide, bumetanide, ethacrynic acid, torsemide

7

name 3 K sparing diuretics

spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride hydrochloride

8

in what way are K sparing diuretics helpful for HTN?

they are great combo drugs with thiazides (name them!) to help prevent hypokalemia

9

what is an osmotic agent?

mannitol

10

what is mannitol good for?

good for increased ICP, and to keep urine flowing in acute renal failure

11

what is a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor?

acetazolamide

12

what is acetazolamide and what is it used for?

carbonic anydrase inhibitor diuretic
tx of glaucoma, mountain sickness

13

name 4 CCBs

diltiazam, verapamil, amlodipine, nifedipine

14

how do CCBs work? what do they do?

they block Ca channels causing vascular relaxation and dilation of arterioles (not veins)

15

what is a side effect of verapamil?

constipation esp in elderly
first degree AV blocks (dose dependent)

16

what are some side effects of the dihydropyridines?

headache, dizziness, flushing, peripheral edema, palpitations (due to the vasodilation)

17

who should you definitely not use CCBs on? why?

CHF pts because of negative inotropic effects (shitty contractile strength)

18

who respond really well to CCBs?

black people

19

if you have a pt on warfarin or digoxin, and you want to use a CCB, which ones should you use?

dihydropyridines (show little interaction w/ other cardio drugs)

20

what are better for HTN? dihydropiridines or other CCBs?

dihydro's bc they have greater affinity for vascular Ca channels than heart Ca channels (low side effect profile)

21

name 5 ACE inhibitors

lisinopril, captopril, benazepril, enalapril, quinapril

22

who should NOT get an ACE inhibitor?

pregnant pts
anyone taking an ARB
black patients

23

how do ACEs reduce BP?

blocks angiotensin II (vasodilates both arterioles and veins) and decreases aldosterone (decreased Na and H2O retention)

24

whats an annoying side effect of an ACE?

dry cough...try an ARB if this occurs

25

whats a kinda bad side effect of an ACE?

hyperkalemia -- DONT use K supplements or K sparing diuretics

26

name two angiotensin II receptor blockers

Losartan, valsartan

27

who should get an ACE I as a FIRST LINE tx?

adults with chronic kidney disease

28

name 3 B blockers

Propranolol, atenolol, metoprolol

29

what are ARBs pretty good for?

pt's with CKD
pt's who dont tolerate ACEs (cough)
decreasing nephrotoxicity esp in DM pts

30

what are some side effects of ARBS

hyperkalemia
BAD for pregnant mothers
BAD in combo with ACEs