Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (25):
What pressure does blood pressure measure? Arterial or venous?
What is normal blood pressure?
What is the unit for measuring blood pressure?
What is the difference between systolic and diastolic, in terms of BP?
Systolic = heart contraction
Diastolic = heart relaxation
List some things that could interfere with blood pressure measurement?
Position of arm
What does smoking do to blood pressure?
Why are 24 hour blood pressure monitors used?
To get more reliable information on someone's blood pressure
No white coat effect
What is the link between age and blood pressure?
Usually increases with age
Until about age 70 when it starts declining due to frailty
What problems does high BP cause?
Coronary heart disease
Is it males or females that get hypertension more?
Males more than females
What is the most common causes of hypertension?
What are the causes of hypertension?
Overproduction of aldosterone
Rare hormone secreting tumours
What percentage of cases of hypertension are down to genetics?
Name 3 adrenal disorders that cause hypertension?
1. Primary aldosteronism: Conn's syndrome
3. Cushing's Syndrome
What is primary aldosteronism (Conn's syndrome)?
Excess aldosterone production by the adrenal glands
Caused by adrenal adenoma
What are the symptoms of primary aldosteronism (Conn's syndrome)?
High blood pressure
Muscle cramps + spasms
Complications: CVS problems, renal problems
What is Phaeochromocytoma?
Tumour of the medulla of the adrenal glands
Leads to excess production of catecholamines, adrenaline + (mainly) noradrenaline
They get symptomatic episodes
What are the symptoms of Phaeochromocytoma?
- Pain in chest
What are the features of a symptomatic episode of Phaeochromocytoma?
The 4 Ps
Pain in chest
What is Cushing's syndrome?
A tumour that produces excess cortisol
Can be benign or malignant
What are the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome?
Abdominal obesity but thin arms & legs
Fat lump between shoulders
Moon face (rounded face)
What renal diseases can cause hypertension?
Fibrotic / scarred kidneys
Renal artery stenosis
How does renal artery stenosis lead to hypertension?
The kidney receives less blood supply due to the stenosis
Low kidney perfusion triggers release of renin
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway raises blood pressure
What causes renal artery stenosis?