Hypertension Flashcards Preview

Cardiovascular > Hypertension > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (25):
1

What pressure does blood pressure measure? Arterial or venous?

Arterial

2

What is normal blood pressure?

120/80

3

What is the unit for measuring blood pressure?

mmHg

4

What is the difference between systolic and diastolic, in terms of BP?

Systolic = heart contraction

Diastolic = heart relaxation

5

List some things that could interfere with blood pressure measurement?

Stress
Talking
Caffeine
Exercise
Eating
Smoking
Position of arm
Temperature
Environment

6

What does smoking do to blood pressure?

Raises it

7

Why are 24 hour blood pressure monitors used?

To get more reliable information on someone's blood pressure

No white coat effect
More readings

8

What is the link between age and blood pressure?

Usually increases with age

Until about age 70 when it starts declining due to frailty

9

What problems does high BP cause?

Stroke
Myocardial infarction
Coronary heart disease
Heart failure
Renal failure

10

Is it males or females that get hypertension more?

Males more than females

11

What is the most common causes of hypertension?

No explanation!

12

What are the causes of hypertension?

Idiopathic

Overproduction of aldosterone
Adrenal causes
Renal disease
Drugs
Rare hormone secreting tumours

13

What percentage of cases of hypertension are down to genetics?

20-35%

14

Name 3 adrenal disorders that cause hypertension?

1. Primary aldosteronism: Conn's syndrome

2. Phaeochromocytoma

3. Cushing's Syndrome

15

What is primary aldosteronism (Conn's syndrome)?

Excess aldosterone production by the adrenal glands

Caused by adrenal adenoma

16

What are the symptoms of primary aldosteronism (Conn's syndrome)?

High blood pressure
Headaches
Poor vision
Muscle cramps + spasms

Complications: CVS problems, renal problems

17

What is Phaeochromocytoma?

Tumour of the medulla of the adrenal glands

Leads to excess production of catecholamines, adrenaline + (mainly) noradrenaline

They get symptomatic episodes

18

What are the symptoms of Phaeochromocytoma?

Hypertension
Sweating
Hyperglycaemia

Symptomatic episodes:
- Pallor
- Palpitations
- Panic
- Pain in chest

19

What are the features of a symptomatic episode of Phaeochromocytoma?

The 4 Ps

Pallor
Palpitations
Panic
Pain in chest

20

What is Cushing's syndrome?

A tumour that produces excess cortisol

Can be benign or malignant

21

What are the symptoms of Cushing's syndrome?

Hypertension

Abdominal obesity but thin arms & legs

Stretch marks

Fat lump between shoulders

Weak bones

Acne

Moon face (rounded face)

22

What renal diseases can cause hypertension?

Fibrotic / scarred kidneys

Polycystic kidneys

Renal artery stenosis

23

How does renal artery stenosis lead to hypertension?

The kidney receives less blood supply due to the stenosis

Low kidney perfusion triggers release of renin

Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway raises blood pressure

24

What causes renal artery stenosis?

Atheromas
Fibromuscular disease

25

What lifestyle factors influence blood pressure?

Weight
Salt
Alcohol
Smoking
Drugs