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Therapeutics II > Hypertension > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (108)
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1

Systolic blood pressure

Pressure in arteries when heart pumps

2

Diastolic blood pressure

Pressure in arteries when heart relaxes between beats

3

Which is more concerning--diastolic hypertension or systolic hypertension?

Systolic

4

Hypertension = ____ measurements of blood pressure with diastolic > ___, systolic > _____, resting pulse pressure > _____

2 or more measurements
Diastolic > 90
Systolic > 140
Resting pulse pressure > 65

5

What is resting pulse pressure?

Systolic - diastolic

6

What is primary hypertension?

Hypertension with no identifiable cause

7

What are the lifestyle risk factors for primary hypertension?

Excess body weight
Smoking
Alcohol
Excess Sodium
low K+
Sedentary lifestyle

8

What are the risk factors for primary HTN?

Lifestyle
Hyperlipidemia
Depression
Age
Sex (<55 more common in men, >55 more common in women)
Genes (FH)
Race (african american)
(low Vitamin D
Stress
smoking
diet
Alcohol)

9

What is secondary hypertension also called?

Inessential HTN

10

What are the causes of secondary hypertension?

Kidney disease/renal artery constriction
Tumor of the adrenal gland
Cushings/Conns
Coarctation of the aorta
Pregnancy (preeclampsia)
Medication

11

What medications can cause hypertension?

High estrogen oral contraceptives
Antidepressants (clozapine, venlafaxine)

12

What is rebound hypertension?

Hypertension after d/c antihypertensive medication

13

What kidney factors can cause hypertension?

Stenosis
Cysts
Glomerulonephritis

14

What type of tumor can cause hypertension?

Pheochomocytoma--adrenal gland (increases adrenaline)

15

People with diabetes are ____ more likely to get hypertension

2-4 x

16

How does diabetic nephropathy cause hypertension?

Not fully understood--involves;
Excess sodium retention
Sympathetic nervous system
RAAS
Endothelial cell dysfunction
Oxidative stress

17

___ and ___ can lead to vascular damage (associated with diabetes)

Glucose and fat

18

Autonomic neuropathy can lead to ________

Orthostatic hypotension

19

What organs can be damaged from chronic HTN?

Heart (HF, CAD, angina)
Kidney
Brain (stroke)
Eyes

20

What is the equation for BP?

BP = CO x peripheral vascular resistance

21

What are the 3 possible mechanisms of antihypertensive meds?

-Reduce systolic BP
-Reduce CO
-Reduce vascular resistance (vasodilation or decreased BV)

22

Diastolic blood pressure (is/ is not) predictive of mortality?

Is NOT

23

Vascular resistance is controlled by _____

Sympathetic autonomic nervous system

24

What is the equation for CO?

Stroke Volume x HR

25

SV and HR are controlled by ____

PANS and SANS

26

What does the baroreceptor reflex detect?

Change in blood pressure based on stretch of the blood vessels

27

How do baroreceptors respond to low blood pressure?

Activate the SANS --> vasoconstriction, increased HR, increased SV

28

What happens when baroreceptors detect low blood pressure?

The Sympathetic output is decreased (vasodilation, decreased force of contraction, decreased HR)
Parasympathetic output is increased (decreases heart rate)

29

What do chemoreceptors detect?

Changes in pH, CO2, O2

30

High O2 causes increase/decrease in HR?

Decrease