Flashcards in Hypertension Deck (108)
Systolic blood pressure
Pressure in arteries when heart pumps
Diastolic blood pressure
Pressure in arteries when heart relaxes between beats
Which is more concerning--diastolic hypertension or systolic hypertension?
Hypertension = ____ measurements of blood pressure with diastolic > ___, systolic > _____, resting pulse pressure > _____
2 or more measurements
Diastolic > 90
Systolic > 140
Resting pulse pressure > 65
What is resting pulse pressure?
Systolic - diastolic
What is primary hypertension?
Hypertension with no identifiable cause
What are the lifestyle risk factors for primary hypertension?
Excess body weight
What are the risk factors for primary HTN?
Sex (<55 more common in men, >55 more common in women)
Race (african american)
(low Vitamin D
What is secondary hypertension also called?
What are the causes of secondary hypertension?
Kidney disease/renal artery constriction
Tumor of the adrenal gland
Coarctation of the aorta
What medications can cause hypertension?
High estrogen oral contraceptives
Antidepressants (clozapine, venlafaxine)
What is rebound hypertension?
Hypertension after d/c antihypertensive medication
What kidney factors can cause hypertension?
What type of tumor can cause hypertension?
Pheochomocytoma--adrenal gland (increases adrenaline)
People with diabetes are ____ more likely to get hypertension
How does diabetic nephropathy cause hypertension?
Not fully understood--involves;
Excess sodium retention
Sympathetic nervous system
Endothelial cell dysfunction
___ and ___ can lead to vascular damage (associated with diabetes)
Glucose and fat
Autonomic neuropathy can lead to ________
What organs can be damaged from chronic HTN?
Heart (HF, CAD, angina)
What is the equation for BP?
BP = CO x peripheral vascular resistance
What are the 3 possible mechanisms of antihypertensive meds?
-Reduce systolic BP
-Reduce vascular resistance (vasodilation or decreased BV)
Diastolic blood pressure (is/ is not) predictive of mortality?
Vascular resistance is controlled by _____
Sympathetic autonomic nervous system
What is the equation for CO?
Stroke Volume x HR
SV and HR are controlled by ____
PANS and SANS
What does the baroreceptor reflex detect?
Change in blood pressure based on stretch of the blood vessels
How do baroreceptors respond to low blood pressure?
Activate the SANS --> vasoconstriction, increased HR, increased SV
What happens when baroreceptors detect low blood pressure?
The Sympathetic output is decreased (vasodilation, decreased force of contraction, decreased HR)
Parasympathetic output is increased (decreases heart rate)
What do chemoreceptors detect?
Changes in pH, CO2, O2