Hypothalamus and Pituitary Overview Flashcards Preview

Endo/Repro Exam 1 > Hypothalamus and Pituitary Overview > Flashcards

Flashcards in Hypothalamus and Pituitary Overview Deck (52):
1

What is the main role of the hypothalamic hormones?

Regulate adenohypophysis hormones

2

What does permissive action mean?

One hormone regulates the affect of another hormone

3

Down-regulation:

A decrease in density of receptors in response to chronic high concentrations of hormones

4

Up-regulation:

An increase in the density of receptors in response to chronic low concentrations of the hormone

5

What hormones are released from the hypothalamus?

GnRH
GHRH
SS
TRH
DA
CRH
PIH

6

What hormones are released from the anterior pituitary?

FSH
LH
Growth hormone
TSH
Prolactin
ACTH

7

What does GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone) do?

Stimulates FSH and LH

8

What does GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone) do?

Stimulates (GH) growth hormone

9

What does SS (somatostatin) do?

Inhibits (GH) growth hormone

10

What does TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) do?

Stimulates TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone)

11

What is needed for GnRH to be released?

Kisspeptin

12

What does PIH and DA do?

Inhibits prolactin

13

What does CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) do?

Stimulates ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)

14

What is the best way to test hormone levels?

Urine samples not blood samples due to diurnal cycle

15

How are peptide hormones translated?

They are translated on rough ER as inactive preprohormones and cleaved to prohormones

16

Where do prohormones go?

Packaged by the Golgi Apparatus for packing in secretory vesicles

17

What occurs to prohormones in vesicles?

They are cleaved to active hormone and pro-fragment

18

Where are the active hormones inside the vesicles stored?

In the cytoplasm

19

When does exocytosis of peptide hormones occur?

When the cell is stimulated and in many cases Ca2+ initiates the process

20

How are steroids made?

Rapidly from cholesterol and not stored

21

What is a primary disorder?

Target endocrine gland disorder

22

What is a secondary disorder?

Disorder on pituitary gland

23

What is a tertiary disorder?

Disorder on hypothalamus

24

What cascade does physical or emotional stress stimulate?

Stimulates hypothalamus to release corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), CRH travels to adenohypophysis stimulating ACTH release, ACTH acts on the adrenal cortex to release cortisol

25

What is the two level hierarchical feedback of cortisol release?

Cortisol inhibiting hypothalamus from releasing CRH
Cortisol inhibiting ACTH release from anterior pituitary

26

What hormones are released from the posterior pituitary?

ADH
OT (oxytocin)

27

What does the paraventricular nucleus release?

CRH
TRH
SST
DA
AVP
OT

28

What does the periventricular nucleus release?

SST

29

What does the Arcuate nucleus release?

GHRH
SST
DA

30

What does the preoptic nucleus release?

GnRH

31

What does the ventromedial nucleus release?

SST

32

What does the supraoptic nucleus release?

AVP (ADH)
OT (more so than AVP)

33

What does DA inhibit?

Somatostatin

34

What does somatostatin inhibit release of?

GHRH

35

What is the primary mediator of effects of GH?

IGF-1

36

What affect does IGF-1 have on GH pathway?

Inhibitory

37

What does IGF-1 affect on the hypothalamus?

SS release

38

What is SS effect on the GH?

Inhibitory

39

Ghrelin affect on hypothalamus?

Release of GHRH

40

What does GH effect?

Stimulation of IGF-1
Inhibits GHRH

41

What channel does ACTH work on in the adrenal gland?

MC2R (melanocortin receptor-2)

42

What is Pexacerfont?

A CRH-1 receptor antagonist

43

What is Pexacerfont being investigated for?

Use in anxiety disorder

44

What is high CRH found in?

Alzheimer's
Major depression
Suicide victims

45

What stimulates release of TRH?

TSH
Low T3/T4 levels

46

What does GnRH do?

Stimulates LH and FSH release

47

What inhibits GnRH and LH/FSH release?

Testosterone
Estrogens/Progesterone

48

What does DA inhibit?

Lactotrophs from releasing Prolactin

49

What stimulates DA release?

Prolactin

50

What stimulates release of prolactin?

Breast suckling

51

What four disorders have links to dopamine?

1.) Parkinson's disease: loss of dopamine
2.) Schizophrenia: altered levels
3.) RLS: decreased levels
4.) ADHD: decreased levels

52

What is used for a dopamine injection and why?

L-DOPA because it crosses the BBB