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Flashcards in Hypothalamus/pituitary Deck (24):

What are the two lobes of the hypothalamus called and what is found in them?

Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary):
Pars tubealis
Pars intermedia
Pars distalis

Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary):
Median eminence Pars nervosa


What is the hormonal feedback mechanism of the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary?

Stimulus (+/-) -> Hypothalamus -> Hormone 1 (GnRH) -> Anterior pituitary -> Hormone 2 (LH, FSH) -> Gonads -> Hormone 3 (17-bea estradiol=E2) -> Target tissue

Both negative and positive feedback. Long loop feedback is from the 17 beta estradiol to the hypothalamus. The two short feedback loops are from the 17 beta estradol to the anterior pituitary and from the LH or FSH to the hypothalamus.


What are the surrounding structures for the hypothalamus?

Anterior: anterior commissure and lamina terminalis
Posterior: mammillary bodies and midbrain
Superior: thalamus


What is the blood supply to the pituitary gland?

Inferior hypophyseal artery to the capillary plexus of infundibular process to the posterior hypophyseal veins

Superior hypophyseal artery to hypopharyngeal portal veins to the secondary plexus of hypophyseal portal system and then to the anterior hypophyseal veins


Why is there high vascularity to the pituitary?

To allow fast feedback and fast, effective endocrine function.


Where do neurons from the hypothalamus release hormones to?

Into the median emmenence, which i part of the hypophyseal portal system supplied by the superior hypophyseal artery. This delivers the hormones to the capillaries in the anterior lobe of the pituitary and can influence the release of other hormones (indirect)


What are the non-hypotalamic neurons that secrete in the pituitary?

Supraoptic and paraventricular neurons. These produce anti-diuretic hormone and oxytocin, respectively and are released into the posterior lobe - these are direct release hormone


What is the path to the release of growth hormone?

Neurons from he arcuate nucleus release growth hormone releasing hormone into the anterior pituitary resulting in the synthesi and production of growth hormone. In this process, the growth hormone inhibitory hormone needs to be inhibited. These are produced by neurons from the periventricular nucleus.

Growth hormone in the liver leads to secretion of somatomedins (insulin-like growth factor 1), which has a feeback on both neurons to produce growth hormone inhibitory hormone.

Somatomedins induce the growth of skeletal muscle and other tissues


What does prolactin and ocytocin regulate?

Prolactin for preparing milk production
Both important for milk ejection.


How is prolactin regulated?

Produced prolactin regulates its own synthesis and release by acting back on he neurons in the arcuate nucleus. This regulates dopamine release in the median eminence causing inhibition of prolactin release/

During pregnancy and lactation this changes to a positive feedback loop. Reduced dopamine signaling.
The suckling stimulus and placental prolactin.

Reduced dopamine is secreted, increased prolactin transport to the brain, placental lactogens as an additional source of lactogen, and secretion of prolactin releasing factor in response to a suckling stimulus. Increased estrogen also increases lactotropes and increased sensitivity of lactotropes.


What are the final output cells for he hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis?

Th GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. Essential for fertility. They are spread out because they are too important to keep in one place. Only need a small number functional.


Where to the GnRH neuons project to?

From the hypothalamus to the median emenence to get access to the anterior lobe of the pituitary


What does GnRH do?

It induces the release of LH and FSH in the anterior lobe that then act on the ovaries.


What modulates the release of FSH and LH?

In the anterior pituitary
Females: estrogen
Males: testosterone

Neurons up stream of the GnRH neurons regulate secretion. These are influenced by stress, starvation etc.


What cells does LH act on?

Thecal cells or leydig cells in the testis.


What cells does FSH act on?

Granlosa cells/sertoli cells.


What does FSH and LH do?

Triggers ovulation after being upregulated by estrogen


What are the feedback loops on the GnRH networks for males and females?

Pages 2.19 and 2.21

Estrogen has both positive and negative feedback depending on the stage of the follicle. Regulated by kisspeptin.


What of contraceptive pills do and what are theside effects?

Block the secretion of FSH and LH. Prevents ovulation.

Acts on cervical mucus to prevent sperm getting through
Acts on endometrium to prevent the egg from implanting.

Side effects: deep vein thrombosis, stroke, pulmonary embolism.
Bleeding, nausea, decreased sex drive, tender breasts.
May prevent menstrual bleeding, and subsequent anemia.


What do kisspeptin neurons do?

Regulate positive feedback of FSH and LH production in response to estrogen.

Arcuate nucleus kisspeptin neurons have a role in LH pulses every 2 hours

They are in the arcuate nucleus for negative feedback
they are in the third ventricle for RP3v for positive feedback. Essential to initiate puberty.


What are some hormones produced in the hypothalamus and secreted into the hypophyseal portal system?

Gonadotrophin releasing hormone
Prolactin releasing hormone
Prolactin inhibiting hormone
Growth hormone releasing hormone


What are some hormones produced by the anterior pituitary gland?

Follicle stimulating hormone
luteinizing hormone
Growth hormone


What are the symptoms of acromegaly and what causes it?

Increased hands and feet
slanting forehead
protruding jaw
Enlarged pituitary gland
Hypertrophy of soft tissues
Increased blood pressure

Caused by over production of GH.


What is kallmann syndrome?

GnRH deficiency

Delayed puberty

Can be associated with ansomia