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Flashcards in I&C Exam Deck (28)
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1. What are the 4 main concepts in attending behavior (three v’s and a b)?

a. Visual- eye contact- level, type, mirroring
b. Vocal Quality- yours/your clients- try to match
c. Verbal Tracking- track the story, help organize
d. Body Language- Open posture, facial expression most important- should be reciprocal, pay attention to their/your resting face


2. What are the cultural differences that may exist with each attending behavior?

a. Visual- AA’s more when talking, less when listening, whites reverse, NA, Latinos- sign of disrespect
b. Vocal- accents have different intonations, impact patterns, vocal underlining
c. Verbal- using culturally appropriate language (settle up) shows respect
d. Body language- shanghai example- too frequent nodding, shoulder touching


3. Define verbal underlining.

a. Verbal emphasis, louder volume to emphasize importance of certain words/phrases


4. Define selective attention.

a. Clients talk about what counselors want to hear- how you select what to pay attention to determines fit of relationship
b. They give you 14 things, how do you respond? “You’ve said a lot, what feels the most important to focus on first? Last thing may be most important. How are all the things connected? To last session?


5. When are closed ended questions helpful in counseling? Open ended?

a. Closed- mainly for clarification
b. Open- pull for lots of info, lets the client lead


6. What is your position on using questions in counseling? Support your position with specific advantages or disadvantages (or both)?

a. Questions are good, but do direct the therapy so should be used sparingly- can make your client feel interrogated, also can create a rhythm of needing you to ask questions to keep the therapy going


7. What is a positive asset search? (be prepared to apply this)

a. Fully explore & empathize, gather data (find internal/external resources), look for supports in the form of people, institutions, role models


8. How could a positive asset search interfere with client development?

a. If you don’t fully empathize first, strengths search could seem dismissive. Failure to treat means stalled therapy due to insufficient empathy, trying to fix before fully hearing


9. What are non-verbal indicators of discomfort? (be prepared to apply this)

a. Closed body language
b. Less eye contact/looking away
c. Facial expression
d. body shift
e. Jiggling leg


10. Define 4 types of client discrepancies with examples of each.

a. Internal to the client (2 contradictory ideas in a statement)
b. Between Client and world (interpersonal conflict/situational conflict)
c. Discrepancy in Goals (seems to be no solution- lose/lose)
d. Discrepancies in you and the client (values, miscommunication, etc)


11. In the course of your own counseling practice, what have you learned about your own verbal and non-verbal behavior and its impact on others?

a. Body Language- Lean
b. Verbal Tone- Soothing Tone
c. Use of Humor/playfulness


12. What is important about the concrete-abstract distinction and how can you use this in counseling?

a. People have a general tendency, know it. Exists on a spectrum- too far one way gets them stuck- too concrete can mean unintegrated memory as found in trauma, too abstract may lead to helplessness- ask meaning based or example questions to get back to middle of spectrum


13. Be able to provide a reflection of feeling, a paraphrase and an encourager to a provided client statement.

b. Para- pull out essence of what they’re saying, includes sentence stem (sounds like), essence, check for accuracy
c. Enc- a couple of possibly exact words to encourage more talking


14. Outline the five stages/dimensions of the interview and the importance of each. Note the importance of cultural issues in your discussion.

a. Empathic Relationship
b. Story & Strengths (Gathering story, issues)
c. Goals (what do we want to happen here?)
d. Restory (exploring alternatives, incongruities, conflict, restory)
e. Action (terminating, generalizing & acting on new thoughts)


15. How are positive asset search and positive regard similar and dissimilar?

a. Both are building up client, looking at strengths, make them feel powerful and good, build efficacy
b. Positive asset search is more active, specific coping mechanisms for dealing with this problem, while positive regard is a way of being and connecting with client, accepting them for how they are, nonjudgmental reflection


16. How are a positive asset search and search for meaning similar and dissimilar?

a. Positive asset search is looking for coping mechanisms/supports that help the person
b. Search for meaning is creating positive assets by searching for implicit meanings and intention within the client’s speech


17. Describe both the family genogram and the cultural genogram. What are some potential uses for each?

a. Cultural genogram- visual representation of person’s place in community- gives information on strengths, supports and also what’s missing
b. Family Genogram- focuses in on family relationships- more detailed (family could be included in community genogram) and allows room for past influences/stories/intergenerational influences


18. What are the elements of the Client Change Scale? How would you use this information with a client?

a. Denial
b. Partial Examination
c. Acceptance and Recognition, but no change
d. Creation of a new solution
e. Transcendence
f. Don’t point out to client where they’re at, but can be helpful as giving them a framework of what’s normal, knowledge that no phase lasts forever, constant ebb and flow of emotion- won’t stay overwhelming forever


19. How might reflection of meaning be useful to a client in reaching their goals?

a. When client places actions in meaning-based framework, more able to discern what goals are and to see how individual actions move them closer or further away from those goals


20. What is Victor Frankl’s dereflection technique?

a. Encouraging client to find positive meaning within their negative experiences, shifts focus to optimistic, gratitude, meaning-based existence


21. Give 3 examples of ways to elicit meaning with clients.

a. Elicit Meaning (questions)
b. Reflect Meaning
c. Discernment (the origin of all experiences)- purpose of life/mission


22. Name and define 4 influencing techniques. Be prepared to distinguish between them and provide examples of each given a client scenario.

a. Reflection of Meaning- “I hear that keeping going is a key value for you”
b. Interpreting/Reframing- “what stands out for me is how smart you are- can we use that?”
c. Confrontation- pointing out contradictions/conflict in what client is saying
d. Self-Disclosure- sharing personal opinions/information to influence client


23. What are therapeutic lifestyle changes and how can these be incorporated into treatment?

a. Sleep
b. Exercise
c. Crying
d. Relaxation Training


24. How is understanding bias a form of psychoeducation?

a. We all have biases, many problems result from not acknowledging the water in your goldfish bowl, for therapists & clients- Lab example, Gina wanted her boyfriend to show he loved her in the way she wanted


25. Describe assertiveness training and under what circumstances you might use this with a client.

a. Spectrum- passive (doesn’t take responsibility for own needs)- aggressive (doesn’t take others’ needs into account)- want to be in middle- assertive (takes care of own needs while also understanding and allowing for others to have needs)
b. Passive aggressive- acting passive, but using underhanded means to get needs met/understood
c. Teach empathy, I statements (when x happens I feel y and I’d like z), broken record technique


26. What are stress- focused interventions and how would you use these with a client?

a. Help people manage their stress- relaxation training (breathing), cognitive restructuring, assertiveness training, thought stopping, positive guided imagery


27. What are three types of self-disclosure and how are these used in counseling?

a. Biographical (danger!)
b. Feelings in the here & now (humanistic)
c. Opinions about the future


28. Provide an assessment of where you are in your counseling skills. What techniques are you comfortable with, in what techniques would you like more mastery?

a. Good with paraphrasing, building rapport and gathering story. Strong on seeking strengths and meaning based questions. Love confrontation. Wishing I felt more comfortable with influencing skills and goal setting- I truly believe that everyone is on their own individual journey and don’t feel comfortable assuming I know what is best for them- makes it difficult to problem solve for them. Not sure how pushy I should be. Wish I knew more psychoeducation techniques. Wish I knew more about counseling for specific ages & issues.