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Flashcards in Identity And Personality Deck (19)
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Gestalt Therapy

Holistic view of the self. Not reducing individuals to behaviors or drives alone. Associated with humanism


Humanistic theorists - supporters and definition

Also called phenomenological theorists: Kurt Lewin, Abraham Maslow, George Kelly, Carl Rogers


Force Field Theory

Kurt Lewin: little stock in constraints on personalities such as fixed traits, habits or structures (id, ego, and superego)
Field is one’s current state of mind and the forces are influences on the individual during that time (no focus on past or future)
2 groups: influences assisting in attaining goals and those blocking attainment


Maslow’s peak experiences

Profoundly moving experiences that have lasting effects


George Kelly

Humanist - personal construct psychology
Individual is a scientist predicting and testing actions of others; attempt to construct and understand variables in the environment


Carl Rogers’ client-centered therapy

Known for client-centered (also called person-centered and nondirective) therapy, which espouses that people can control their own behavior and are not slaves to the unconscious or to faulty learning. No suggestions but assist in leading the patient to the right decision
Originator of real and ideal self


Carl Rogers’ unconditional positive regard

Therapeutic environment in which client is accepted entirely and empathy is expressed toward patient.


Type theorists

Taxonomy of personality types
Personalities are set of distinct qualities and dispositions into which people can be grouped
Examples include somatotypes - theory by William Sheldon that personality was based on body type; type A and B personalities; and Myers-Briggs


Trait Theorists

Individual personality is the sum of person’s characteristic behaviors


Hans and Sybil Eysenck’s PEN Model

Trait theory which includes psychoticism (the measure of nonconformity or social deviance); Extroversion (measure of tolerance for social interaction situations); and Neuroticism (measure of emotional arousal in stressful situations)


Big Five

OCEAN: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism


Gordon Alpert’s three traits or dispositions

Primarily a trait theorist -
Cardinal traits - traits around which a person organizes his life; not everyone has these
Central traits - major characteristics of the personality easily inferred such as honesty
Secondary traits - other characteristics more limited in occurrence


Allport’s functional autonomy

A behavior continues even after the drive that created it has been satisfied (a hunter continues to hunt even after he has enough food)


David McClelland’s N-Ach

N-Ach the need for achievement
Pride in accomplishments; avoid high risk and low risk and stop striving toward a goal if victory is unlikely



Championed by B.F. Skinner; heavily based on operant conditioning
Personality is a reflection of behaviors that have been reinforced over time. And therapy should focus on reinforcing good behaviors
Token economies - impatient - positive behavior is rewarded with tokens


Social cognitive perspective

Takes behaviorism a step further focusing not only on environmental influences on behavior but also our interaction with the environment


Albert Bendura’s reciprocal determinism

Idea that our thoughts, feelings and behaviors and environment all interact to determine our actions in a given situation
People choose environments that suit their personalities and environment determines how that person will react.


Biological Perspective

Personality is a result of genetic expression in the brain


Dispositional vs situational approach

Behavior is determined by individual’s personality or by the environment or context