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Ghadar Movement

- originally called the Pacific Coast Hindustan Association (later renamed the Ghadar Movement)

- founded in San Francisco

- fought for Indian Independence from G.B.

- founded in in "communist" and nationalist ideals (communism at the time meant anti-colonial)


Ghadar Movement (Significance)

- Transnational Political Activism (founded within the United States and then moved in to India)

- took advantage of the US freedoms of speech, assembly and press to grow their movement

- Ghadar means "mutiny" or "revolution"


Taraknath Das

- founding member of the Pacific Coast Hindustani Association (the Ghadar Party)


Taraknath Das (Significance)

- Established the Free Hindustan newspaper (Hindustan Ghadar)

- the paper was written with Anti-Colonialism viewpoints

- newspaper allowed for people to realize they weren't alone in their feelings an was a way to assemble together to create change (think Facebook organizing protests)

- never wrote down the names of subscribers or their addresses (remembered everything to protect the identities of those getting the paper)


cold war democracy

Soviet propaganda focused on racism in the US to discredit American Democracy

- the US set forth to restore their credibility abroad

- combatting racism became connected to the fight against communism (like Brown v. Board of Education case)


cold war democracy (Significance)

- securing democracy superiority over Soviet Communism entailed regulating beliefs within the US

- led to McCarthyism and persecution of leftists and communists in the US

- led to the 1952 McCarran Walter Act (permitted immigration from the Asian Pacific Triangle, granted naturalization to all Asians, special entry status to GI wives, harsh measures to limit subversive activities)


Vietnamization of the War

Nixon Doctrine;

- withdrawal of American troops and transition to a war fought by the Vietnamese (US would provide economic aid)


Vietnamization of the War (Significance)

- US openly admits that the war was fought almost entirely by US soldiers and pull out due to unpopularity within the US

- eventual transition to covert ops (US train Vietnamese and increase activities like bombing in Laos and Cambodia and "Secret Wars"


Korean Independence Movement

- attempting to remove themselves from Japanese Colonialism

- done by various groups of Korean Nationalists who came together

- after Japanese crackdown against nationalist protests, Korean Nationalists fled to China and US


Korean Independence Movement (Significance)

- staged within the United States (transnational political activism; while laboring and fighting for equal rights within the US they were also fighting for a free Korea)

- the various groups lead to inner conflict over what a "Free Korea" might look like (Communist vs. US Style Democracy?; laid the groundwork for future conflict that would erupt during the Korean War)



Social: "unlike immigrants" (recognizes the lack of choice to come, lack of preparedness, that their destination was unknown, and implied a traumatic journey)

Legal: US open to any refugees "fleeing communism" (UN Convention relating to the status of Refugees clarifies that if they don't leave their country they will die)


refugee (Significance)

- US recognizes refugees as their political responsibility by creating a special type of immigrant regulated by government provisions

- EX. Southeast Asians (first mass group to be recognized)

- Structure of Refuge (federal program to assist refugees; unlike most immigrants refugees are eligible for govt. assistance like supplemental social security, food stamps, etc)


proxy wars

"Stand-In" (the conflict between two states where fighting occurs derivatively)

ex.) the US fought the Soviet Union through war against the northern peninsula of Korea


proxy wars (Significance)

- war becomes marked by confusion (who's liberty are we protecting / why are we fighting)

- revealed competing definitions of communism (anti-colonist vs anti soviet expansion)


the latehomecomer

the Grandmother in Kao Kalia Yang's novel of the same name


the latehomecomer significance

- she survived the war and died of natural causes outliving most of her generation

- she arrived late to the US and Minnesota (later than her family)

- came "late" after her death to the clouds because they left Laos and will have a longer way to travel to join her ancestors in the sky


GI wives

- the wives of American soldiers fighting or stationed overseas

ex. Korean GI Wives


GI wives (significance)

- the legacy of the Korean war and one of the main immigrant groups

- estimated 40 - 50 % of Koreans in the United States can trace immigration to the sponsor of a wife of an American soldier

- were granted special entry because of the 1952 McCarran Walter act

- heavy stigmatism of mixed race babies in Korea led to massive amounts of adoptable babies


paj ntaub

- the Hmong "story cloth" that is hand-stitched by women

ex. the one carried by the mother in the story The Latehomecomer


paj ntaub (Significance)

- most popular depiction is of their history (specifically their journey during the refugee movement to Thailand)

- divided by the Mekong River with planes in the corner that represent flying to the US, Australia, or China

- a way they maintained their history since most of the could not read or write

- was a way for Hmong women to make money and increase their economic independence


The War on Terror

- the aftermath of 9/11 that resulted in a surge of US patriotism

- on September 14th, congress passed a resolution authorizing military forces to fight 'terrorists'


The War on Terror (Significance)

- first war not against a specific place or people

- changed Us immigration policy through the US Patriot Act which created the current "Brown Threat" ideology (muslims are considered terrorists and Latinx are considered illegals)

- immigration is now considered the greatest threat to national security (formation of the Department of Homeland Security; ICE and Citizenship and Immigration Services)


We-Win-Even-When-We-Lose Syndrome

- from Espiritu article; an attempt by the US to legitimize their actions in Vietnam after they lost the war by focusing NOT on the lack of a free and liberated country but one the success stories of Vietnam refugees in the US

- did so through media coverage (the language used made it seem as though we won by rescuing refugees and giving them "great lives" in the US)


We-Win-Even-When-We-Lose Syndrome (Significance)

- shows how easily the media can transform our thoughts and views

- media using the refugee figured and the returned soldiers to remake the cultural memory of the Vietnam War into a just and successful cause

- caused the US to change how we treat, view, and talk about our veterans (think of their sacrifices rather than the violence they committed during the war; rehabilitation of military image through "loss of innocence" theme)