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Flashcards in IgE channels and allergies Deck (55)
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1

What is an allergy?

Disease following an immune response to an allergen

2

What immunoglobulin is most associated with allergies?

IgE

3

What is a hypersensitivity reaction

Inappropriate or exaggerated immune response that causes inflammation, tissue damage and disease.

4

What is the end result of sensitization to an allergen

Production of allergen-specific IgE and up-regulattion of T helper cells

5

How are allergens sampled in the lungs

Dendritic cells sample in the airway lumen or tissue itself if the allergen has transferred through disrupted epithelium.

6

Where do dendritic cells migrate to and mature

Migrate to the regional lymph nodes or local mucosa, where they present allergen derived peptides on their MHCII complexes to naive T cells.

7

What is required to be present for maturation of naive T cells to T helper cells

IL-4 (enhanced by engagement of notch on the surface of T cells with Jagged on dendritic cells).

8

What is the result of T helper cell interaction with B cells

Cause them to mature into plasma cells and undergo immunoglobulin class-switch recombination

9

What is immunoglobulin class-switch recombination in the context of asthma

Plasma cells' gene segments encoding Ig heavy chains are rearranged so IgE antibodies are produced.

10

What do circulating IgE receptors bind to after reaching the interstitial fluid?

Allergen specific or non-specific IgE binds to the high affinity receptor for IgE on tissue resident mast cells. FcεRI

11

Does sensitisation produce any symptoms

No

12

Give an example of how the T helper cell response to allergens can be treated

IL-4 receptor dosage binds IL-4, inactivating naturally occurring IL-4 without cellular activation.

13

What needs to occur for an active response of a mast cell

Binding of two IgE antibodies by the antigen on the mast cells surface

14

What do mast cells do when activated

Release preformed mediators and increase the synthesis of many cytokines, growth factors and chemokines.

15

What is the result of mast cell activation

Bronchoconstriction, vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, increased mucous production

16

How does mast cell activation contribute to the late phase transition

Promoting the influx of inflammatory leukocytes: By upregulating adhesion molecules on vascular endothelial cells. But also by secreting chemotactic mediators, especially leukotriene B (LTB) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and chemokines such as IL-8

17

What innate immune cells are present in the late phase reaction

Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes

18

What adaptive immune cells are present in the late phase reaction

Antigen stimulated T-cells.

19

What is the action of neutrophils in the late phase reaction

Release of elastase - promotes the activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the subsequent degredation of type III collagen

20

What is the action of eosinophils in the late phase reaction

Release basic proteins that can injure epithelial cells

21

What are other late phase reaction results

Bronchoconstriction, increased mucus production

22

What do B2-adrenoceptor agonists do

salbutamol, relax smooth muscle, inhibit mast cell degranulation and inhibit mucus secretion.

23

What do corticosteroids do

repress transcription of newly synthesised mediators like chemokines, other cytokines and prostanoids by the inhibition of COX2 induction.

24

What is the action of Omalizumab/ Zolair

IgE antibody - blocks IgE receptors from binding to mast cells.
Very costly, must be injected, and has no effect on mast cells that already have IgE associated with them.

25

What subunits make up the tetrameric FcεRI receptor

one alpha, one beta, two gamma

26

What regulates the synthesis of FcεRI

IL-4 produced by TH2cells

27

What is the importance of the FcεRI beta and gamma chains

They contain the ITAMs (immunoreceptor tyrosine based activation motif) - These are required for initiation of signalling

28

How to ITAMs induce signalling

Tyrosines in ITAMs are targets for phosphorylation by Src tyrosine kinases and subsequent SH2 domain binding of intracellular signalling molecules

29

What is the role of the beta subunit of the FcεRI

amplifies signalling and stabilises cell surface expression

30

What is the role of the gamma subunit of the FcεRI

Provides scaffold, ensuring the receptor can reach the cell surface.