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Flashcards in IHD Part 2 lectures Deck (19)
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1

Intro to med: What is the relevance of history and examination to dental practice?

First line screening

Dental signs of systemic disease

Impact of disease on dental treatment

Impact of dental treatment / therapy on ill patients

2

Intro to med: What are the components of a medical history?

Presenting complaint
Current medical Hx
Past Medical Hx
Family Hx
Social Hx
Drug Hx
etc

3

Intro to med: What are the signs of chest disease?

Cough
Sputum
Wheezing
Cyanosis
Dyspnoea
Haemoptysis
Chest pain

4

Intro to med: What are the differential diagnosis for wheezing?

Asthma
Bronchitis
Vocal cord dysfunction
Foreign body aspiration
Infections
Congestive heart failure
COPD
Forced expiration in normal subjects
Cystic fibrosis

5

Intro to med: What are the differential diagnosis for chest pain?

Pleuritic - sharp stabbing on inspiration
Chest wall - costochondritis
Pulmonary -pneumothorax
Cardiac - myocardial infarction
Great vessels - dissection
Oesophageal - reflux
Gall bladder -cholecystitis

6

Intro to med: What are the risk factors for heart disease?

Smoking
Heavy drinking
Inactivity
Overweight / obesity
Diabetes…….

7

Intro to med: What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes?

Infections (skin, gums or urinary tract)
Weakness
Drowsiness, fatigue
Tingling in hands and feet
Swelling of hands and feet
Itchy skin
Thrush

8

Intro to med: What are the symptoms of type 2 diabetes?

Excessive thirst
Frequent urination
Weakness
Drowsiness, fatigue
Sudden weight-loss
Sudden change in vision Blurred vision
Nausea and vomiting

9

Intro to med: What common oral health problems can be found in Diabetes?

Tooth decay
Periodontal disease
Salivary gland dysfunction
Inflammatory skin disease (lichen planus)
Infection & delayed healing
Taste impairment

10

Intro to surgery: What is surgery?

“The art of healing by manual operation.
“The branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures”.

11

Intro to surgery: What are the types of surgery?

Elective - not immediate, planned
Emergency (Immediate, Urgent)
Expedited - not immediate but more urgent than elective - fast tracked
Laparoscopic, Microsurgery
Day Surgery

12

Intro to surgery: What are the classifications of surgery?

Major – cancer resection
Intermediate – Hernia Repair
Minor – Excision of Lipoma

13

Intro to surgery: What does a surgeon do?

Diagnosis

Treatment options -Surgical/ Non-surgical

Operate

Post-op care
- Immediate post-op care
- Rehabilitation
- Follow-up care

14

Intro to surgery: What is involved in pre-op care?

Safe surgery:
Informed consent

Anticipate complications
- Blood loss prevention/replacement
- Infection issues

Safe anaesthetic
- Airway
- Assess co-morbidities
- Specific heart/lung investigation

15

Intro to surgery: What is the ASA classification? LEARN

ASA I Healthy patient

ASA II Mild systemic disease with no functional limitation - controlled hypertension (e.g. fit and healthy but smokes/pregnant)

ASA III Severe systemic disease with definite functional limitation - COPD

ASA IV Severe systemic disease that is a constant threat to life - unstable angina (GTN spray does not work)

ASA V Moribund patient who is not expected to survive for 24 hours with or without surgery - ruptured aortic aneurysm

Suffix E Emergency procedure

16

Intro to surgery: Why is ASA classification used?

Estimate risk of complications
Guide choice of treatment

17

Intro to surgery: What surgical diseases are of particular interest to dentists?

Other prostheses - joint/ vascular

Rheumatoid arthritis - neck, join prosthesis, steroid

Transplantation - immune suppression, gingivitis, Grant vs Host disease

18

Intro to surgery: Why do I need to know about surgery?

Dealing with emergencies
Airway
Bleeding
Vital signs
Sedation

19

History taking: Why does the history have to be in a chronological order?

because someone else may read the history