IMMS Flashcards Preview

Phase 1 Histology > IMMS > Flashcards

Flashcards in IMMS Deck (41)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is this?

ALCIAN BLUE

  • GAG-rich
  • mucous
  • mast cells
  • cartilage

BLUE

2

What is this?

EOSIN

  • colloidal proteins
  • plasma

PINK

EOSINOPHILIC = ACIDOPHILIC

3

What is this?

IRON HAEMATOXYLIN

  • nuclei
  • elastic fibres

BLACK

4

What is this?

PERIODIC ACID SCHIFF (PAS)

  • hexose sugars (complex carbs)
  • goblet cell mucins
  • cartilage matrix
  • glycogen
  • basement membranes
  • brush border

MAGENTA (DARK PINK)

5

What is this?

ROMANOVSKY/LEISHMANN'S (BLOOD FILMS)

  • Chromatn/nuclei and neutrophil granules (PURPLE)
  • eryhtrocytes/eosin granules (RED/PINK)
  • lymphocyte/monocyte plasma (PALE BLUE)
  • basophil granules (DARK BLUE/PURPLE)

6

TOLUIDINE BLUE

  • nuclei/ribosomoes (DARK BLUE)
  • cytoplasm (PALE BLUE)
  • cartilage/matrix/mast cell/GAG rich (BRIGHT PURPLE)

7

VAN GIESON'S TRICHROME WITH HAEMATOXYLIN COUNTER STAIN

  • collagen (PINK RED)
  • cell cytoplasm (YELLOW/OLIVE GREEN)
  • nuclei (BLACK)
  • elastic tissue (DARK BROWN)

8

HAEMATOXYLIN

  • nuclei
  • RNA

BLUE

BASOPHILIC STRUCTURES = BLUE

9

SILVER STAIN - NEURONS

  • neurons are large
  • 25-60 microns
  • because of slide thickness you cannot see all processes
  • 1-5 dendritic processes
  • metabolically active
  • fully differentiated

10

LYMPHOCYTE SIZE

  • small = 5 microns
  • little cytoplasm as dormant and not fully differentiated
  • metabolically inactive
  • minimal rER

11

EPITHELIA

  • barries
  • single layer = simple
  • multi layer = stratified
  • stratified = protection

12

SIMPLE COLUMNAR

  • height > width
  • oval nucleus
  • longer axis perp. to base of cell
  • often microvilli or cilia at apical membrane
  • GUT ENTEROCYTES and RESPIRATORY TRACT

 

left = gallballder

13

INTESTINAL EPITHELIUM

  • enterocytes w/ goblet cells
  • epithelia sit on BM - permeability barrier between epithelium and connective tissue
  • microvilli at apical surface = BRUSH BORDER
  • brush border - increase SA / attachment of exo-enzymes
  • samll intestine = simple columnar 

14

MICROVILLI/INTESTINAL WITH PAS AND HAEMATOXYLIN

  • microvilli with carb. rich GLYCOCALYX
  • goblet cells and BM rich in HEXOSE
  • stain magenta

15

CILIATED SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM

  • nose/larynx/bronchial tree/fallopian tube
  • SIMPLE COLUMNAR EP w/ goblet cells and cilia
  • cilia = 2 microns

 

LEFT = NOSE

stained with H&E and ALCIAN BLUE

cilia movement by tubulin and dynein

16

CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM

  • square
  • round nucleus
  • @ducts of exocrine glands - sweat glands, salivary, pancreas
  • kidney tissue

17

SQUAMOUS

  • outer surface of most thoracic and abdominal organs
  • simple squamous epithelium (SEROSA)
  • also lines pleural and peritoneal cavities
  • air sacs of lungs (alveoli)
  • FLATTENED 
  • CYLINDRICAL/ELLIPTICAL NUCLEI @ base of cell

LEFT = serosa @ outer wall intestine

18

AIR / BLOOD BARRIER

  • septa = capillaries covered by simple squamous ep
  • typically 1 micron
  • overall thickness = 5-10 microns
  • with 2x capillary endothelial cells, 2x T1 pneumocytes and capillary lumen

19

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS

  • mouth, throat, oesophagus, anus, vagina
  • cells replaced from below
  • stem cells (mitosis capable) at basal layer
  • sloughed off from top

this slide = moist non-keratinised stratified squamous epithelium at mouth

(moist from glandular secretion)

20

KERATINISED STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS

  • epidermis
  • lower layers epidermis similar to stratified squamous
  • upper layers syntehsise unique collection of proteins - interact with cytoskeleton of cell to produce keratin
  • keratine - dense protein, fills cytoplasm of cells = tough and waterproof
  • when full of keratin cells die and are sloughed off

this slide - hairless skin @ lower lip

blue/purple = living

pink = dead keratinised squames

@ boundary =layer with blue keratohyaline granules

STRATUM GRANULOSUM - intermediate with blue grans

STEM CELLS @ basal layers

21

PSEUDOSTRATIFIED

  • multilayered but when stretched flattens
  • TRACHE AND BRONCHI
  • @urinary tract = specialised UROTHELIUM

distinguish from stratified

all cells in contact with BM

cells replaced by lateral migration not vertical

this slide - trachea

22

CELL JUNCTIONS

  • bound tightly together to prevent macromolecule or fluid movement
  • DESMOSOMES
  • TIGHT (ADHERENT) JUNCTIONS
  • GAP JUNCTIONS

23

GLANDS

  • epithelial in origin - develop as ingrowths
  • exocrine glands to surface by ducts
  • fluid, lubricants, enzymes

MUCUS - separate acini from serous, occasionally mixed

PALE - flattened nucleus at base of cell

SEROUS

DARK - round nuclei

24

CONNECTIVE TISSUE - INTRO

  • extracellular fibre scaffold - COLLAGEN/ELASTIN
  • jelly-like matrix - hydrophilic polysaccharide polymer - GAG - glycosaminoglycans
  • GAG - synthesises @ epithelial cells, muscle, cartilage, bone
  • COLLAGEN/ELASTIN synthesised by fibroblast

25

CONNECTIVE TISSUE - TERMINOLOGY

SOFT - flexible/gel-like

  • fibrous - collagen/elastic/reticulin (with silver = black lines)

LOOSE IRREGULAR - few visible fibres/random orientate

DENSE IRREGULAR - large number of fibres/little matrix

DENSE IRREGULAR - large number of fibres - long parallel bundles

  • fatty - mainly fat cells with intervening capillaries

HARD - bond

 

26

DENSE IRREGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE

  • dermis of scalp
  • long fibres of collagen in many directions
  • fibres stain pink
  • fibres with dark nuclei (fibrobalsts) alongside
  • collagen fibres not uniform thickness
  • INSET - fibroblast
  • COLLAGEN FIBRES = EXTRACELLULAR 

27

DENSE REGULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE

  • ligament
  • thick ribbons of parallel collagen
  • fibroblasts at layer between 
  • compact and regular

COLLAGEN NEITHER ELASTIC NOR CONTRACTILE

28

COLLAGEN (TROPOCOLLAGEN = 300n)

  • 12 types
  • NEITHER ELASTIC NOR CONTRACTILE

TYPE

  1. SKIN/BONE/TEETH/ORGAN CAPSULES
  2. CARTILAGE
  3. LIVER/KIDNEY/SPLEEN/ARTERIES/UTERUS (reticulin)
  4. BASEMENT MEMBRANES (sheet like)
  5. PLACENTA

STRUCTURE - overlapping linear strands TROPO-COLLAGEN

TC secreted from fibroblasts - arranged to fibrils extracellularly

overlapping gives rise to characteristic banding

TC = 3 linear polypeptide chains @ alpha helix

 

29

LOOSE AND DENSE

  • dense irregular at penis erectile compartment (inner) forms a capsule/sheath
  • this is common between cells of most organs and tissue
  • outside = loose

@ penis - an inextensible capsule around erectile compartments means extra blood makes it turgid

30

RETICULIN (TYPE 3 COLLAGEN) - SILVER STAIN

  • shape and intergrity of many organs by extracellular fibres
  • coarser elements = T1
  • fine frameworkd = T3/reticulin

TISSUE OF RETICULO-ENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM ie. lymph nodes, spleen, liver

RETICULIN FORMS BRANCHED FIBRES

 - most collagen forms linear fibres