Immune Flashcards Preview

Transition/stress/nutrition > Immune > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immune Deck (48):
0

What is immunity?

A state of responsiveness to foreign substances such as microorganisms and tumor proteins!

1

What are 3 functions of the immune response?

1) Defense- against invasion, or attacking foreign substances.
2) Homeostasis- digest and remove damaged cellular substances.
3) Surveillance- Recognize mutations as foreign cells and destroy them.

2

The development of immunity, either active or passive is what?

Acquired immunity

3

Undifferentiated cells that are found in small numbers in many adult organs and tissues including the brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, ovarian epithelium and testis...

Adult stem cells

4

What are the primary roles of adult stem cells?

Maintain and repair tissues in which they are found.

5

Cells that have the ability to become any of the hundreds of types of cells in the human body...

Embryonic stem cells

6

A substance that elicits an immune response

Antigen

7

Where are lymphocytes produced?

Bone marrow

8

Cells that migrate from the bone marrow to the Thymus gland differentiate into...

T lymphocytes

9

What's the primary function of Dendritic Cells?

Capture antigens at sites of contact with the external environment (skin, mucous membranes.) most important function in activating the immune response.

10

_______ can differentiate into plasma cells when activated & then produce antibodies (immunoglobulin)

B lymphocytes

11

What does "colonization" mean?

Process in which strains of microorganisms become resident flora.
They may grow/multiply but are not the cause of disease at this point.

12

Group of antibiotics biosynthesized by several species of molds. (Inhibits growth of some gram+ bacteria)

Penicillin

13

Infection occurring during or after treatment of pre-existing infection

Secondary infection

14

Type of infection when blood culture contains microorganisms

Bacteremia infection

15

The ability to produce a disease

Pathogenicity

16

What causes immune response to diminish in older adults?

-thymic involution
-decreased # of T cells
-differentiation of T cells (=more memory cells than precursor cells responsive to previously encountered antigens)

17

Would you give antibiotics to treat mononucleosis or influenza A ?

No it's a viral infection

18

What kind of disease would rheumatoid arthritis be classified as?

Autoimmune disease

19

What part of the blood promotes blood clotting, wound repair, release substances which activate components if the immune system

Platelets

20

What is the purpose of Interleukin 2 (IL 2) during infection process

Allows lymphocytes to talk to each other,produce adequate response to threat imposed by an organism

21

Which two cell types do not require macrophage assistance to recognize, attack, destroy organisms

Natural killer cells
T cytotoxic cells

22

Examples of primary preventive measures?

-hand hygiene
-environment and sanitation
-immunization
-standard precautions

23

Flagyl is an _________ which disrupts the DNA and protein synthesis in susceptible organisms and is used in the treatment of _______.

Anti-infective; anaerobic infections

24

Someone having an immune response would benefit from what type of diet?

A diet high in calories and protein, with lots of fluids for hydration.

25

What do bactericidal antibiotics do to bacteria?

Kills bacteria

26

What type of antibiotic inhibits bacterial growth or reproduction?

Bacteriostatic

27

To prevent crystalline while taking a sulfonamide how many glasses is it recommended that a person drinks a day?

6-8 glasses of water

28

While taking Cipro what foods/supplements would one avoid in prevention of the medication not being absorbed?

Calcium fortified foods

29

When is peak usually drawn?

After the 4th dose of medication has been given-- when medication is at it's highest in the system

30

When is trough usually drawn?

30-60 minutes prior to the 5th dose-- when the med is at it's lowest concentration.

31

What happens when the infection is not controlled and it overtakes the immune system?

Sepsis

32

What is an early sign of infection in the older adults?

Mental status change/confusion

33

Sneezing and coughing is considered to be what type of transmission?

Droplet

34

Which classification of meds is capable of killing Pseudomonia & E.coli (Garamycin, gentamycin, streptomycin, tobramycin, neomycin)

Aminoglycosides

35

Labs to monitor for when taking ceohalosporins

Creatinine (increase)
Bilirubin (increase)
BUN
ALT, AST, Alkaline, LDH

36

While taking flagyl, look for signs/symptoms of superinfection...
S/S:

(black, furry overgrowth on tongue; vaginal itching or discharge; loose or foul-smelling stools)

37

Labs to monitor while taking sulfonamides (Bactrim, Septra)

Decreased Folate
Increase K+
Creatinine
Decreased hepatic function
CBC
Increases serum bilirubin

38

Name the 4 types of hypersensitivity

IgE mediated reaction
Cytoxic
Immune -complex
Delayed hypersensitivity

39

What type of immune response would a catheter (infection) be considered ?

Secondary immune response

40

What is the important job of lymphocytes before it begins immune response?

Lymphocytes recognize protein markers in order to recognize self; to begin immune response of destruction to NON-SELF cells

41

With age comes inability to make T & B cells d/t immunosenescence.
What are other effects of aging on immune system?

Increased autoantibodies
Decreased primary & secondary response
Decreased IL-2 receptors
Decrease delayed hypersensitivity
Decrease cell-mediated immunity

42

What group of proteins is used in cancer pt to inhibit cell growth ?

Interferons -A cytokine

43

Which type of protein produced by plasma cell (b-cells) interrupt toxins & enhance phagocytize activity? "Enhances like A-1 sauce"

Immunoglobulins (antibodies)
start complement cascade for long term immunity

44

IgM is huge plasma protein (1st ATB formed during infection) kills bacteria & keeps in intravascular space. Why is this a good thing?

Keeps it out of intercellular so it doesn't altar DNA

45

Cells involved in cell-mediated immunity, and have significant role in immune surveillance for malignant cell changes...

Natural killer cells

46

Cells that stimulate eosinophil-mediated immunity, which is effective against parasites & involved in allergic responses ...

T helper cells (CD4)
(Subset TH2 cells)

47

Soluble factors secreted by WBCs & act as messengers between cell types instructing cells to alter their proliferation, differentiation, secretion or activity ...

Cytokines