Flashcards in Immune Deck (48):
What is immunity?
A state of responsiveness to foreign substances such as microorganisms and tumor proteins!
What are 3 functions of the immune response?
1) Defense- against invasion, or attacking foreign substances.
2) Homeostasis- digest and remove damaged cellular substances.
3) Surveillance- Recognize mutations as foreign cells and destroy them.
The development of immunity, either active or passive is what?
Undifferentiated cells that are found in small numbers in many adult organs and tissues including the brain, bone marrow, peripheral blood, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver, ovarian epithelium and testis...
Adult stem cells
What are the primary roles of adult stem cells?
Maintain and repair tissues in which they are found.
Cells that have the ability to become any of the hundreds of types of cells in the human body...
Embryonic stem cells
A substance that elicits an immune response
Where are lymphocytes produced?
Cells that migrate from the bone marrow to the Thymus gland differentiate into...
What's the primary function of Dendritic Cells?
Capture antigens at sites of contact with the external environment (skin, mucous membranes.) most important function in activating the immune response.
_______ can differentiate into plasma cells when activated & then produce antibodies (immunoglobulin)
What does "colonization" mean?
Process in which strains of microorganisms become resident flora.
They may grow/multiply but are not the cause of disease at this point.
Group of antibiotics biosynthesized by several species of molds. (Inhibits growth of some gram+ bacteria)
Infection occurring during or after treatment of pre-existing infection
Type of infection when blood culture contains microorganisms
The ability to produce a disease
What causes immune response to diminish in older adults?
-decreased # of T cells
-differentiation of T cells (=more memory cells than precursor cells responsive to previously encountered antigens)
Would you give antibiotics to treat mononucleosis or influenza A ?
No it's a viral infection
What kind of disease would rheumatoid arthritis be classified as?
What part of the blood promotes blood clotting, wound repair, release substances which activate components if the immune system
What is the purpose of Interleukin 2 (IL 2) during infection process
Allows lymphocytes to talk to each other,produce adequate response to threat imposed by an organism
Which two cell types do not require macrophage assistance to recognize, attack, destroy organisms
Natural killer cells
T cytotoxic cells
Examples of primary preventive measures?
-environment and sanitation
Flagyl is an _________ which disrupts the DNA and protein synthesis in susceptible organisms and is used in the treatment of _______.
Anti-infective; anaerobic infections
Someone having an immune response would benefit from what type of diet?
A diet high in calories and protein, with lots of fluids for hydration.
What do bactericidal antibiotics do to bacteria?
What type of antibiotic inhibits bacterial growth or reproduction?
To prevent crystalline while taking a sulfonamide how many glasses is it recommended that a person drinks a day?
6-8 glasses of water
While taking Cipro what foods/supplements would one avoid in prevention of the medication not being absorbed?
Calcium fortified foods
When is peak usually drawn?
After the 4th dose of medication has been given-- when medication is at it's highest in the system
When is trough usually drawn?
30-60 minutes prior to the 5th dose-- when the med is at it's lowest concentration.
What happens when the infection is not controlled and it overtakes the immune system?
What is an early sign of infection in the older adults?
Mental status change/confusion
Sneezing and coughing is considered to be what type of transmission?
Which classification of meds is capable of killing Pseudomonia & E.coli (Garamycin, gentamycin, streptomycin, tobramycin, neomycin)
Labs to monitor for when taking ceohalosporins
ALT, AST, Alkaline, LDH
While taking flagyl, look for signs/symptoms of superinfection...
(black, furry overgrowth on tongue; vaginal itching or discharge; loose or foul-smelling stools)
Labs to monitor while taking sulfonamides (Bactrim, Septra)
Decreased hepatic function
Increases serum bilirubin
Name the 4 types of hypersensitivity
IgE mediated reaction
What type of immune response would a catheter (infection) be considered ?
Secondary immune response
What is the important job of lymphocytes before it begins immune response?
Lymphocytes recognize protein markers in order to recognize self; to begin immune response of destruction to NON-SELF cells
With age comes inability to make T & B cells d/t immunosenescence.
What are other effects of aging on immune system?
Decreased primary & secondary response
Decreased IL-2 receptors
Decrease delayed hypersensitivity
Decrease cell-mediated immunity
What group of proteins is used in cancer pt to inhibit cell growth ?
Interferons -A cytokine
Which type of protein produced by plasma cell (b-cells) interrupt toxins & enhance phagocytize activity? "Enhances like A-1 sauce"
start complement cascade for long term immunity
IgM is huge plasma protein (1st ATB formed during infection) kills bacteria & keeps in intravascular space. Why is this a good thing?
Keeps it out of intercellular so it doesn't altar DNA
Cells involved in cell-mediated immunity, and have significant role in immune surveillance for malignant cell changes...
Natural killer cells
Cells that stimulate eosinophil-mediated immunity, which is effective against parasites & involved in allergic responses ...
T helper cells (CD4)
(Subset TH2 cells)