Immune Drugs (ABX, anti parasite) Flashcards Preview

Emma's NPLEX II Conventional Tx > Immune Drugs (ABX, anti parasite) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immune Drugs (ABX, anti parasite) Deck (38):
1

Iron lowers the absorption rate of these two antibiotics

Tetracycline & Doxycycline

2

Anti-fungal that works by inhibiting the P450 system of mycoses. It may however have a small effect on humans as well therefore liver enzymes should be monitored. It is also contraindicated with warfarin use

Fluconazole

3

What two antibiotics have antimicrobial activity against pneumocystis jiroveci

Sulfamethoxazole & Trimethoprim

4

What antibiotic may cause pseudotumor cerebri

Tetracycline

5

This antibiotic should not be used after expiration due to increased risk of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity (Falconi's syndrome)

Doxycycline

6

These two antibiotics are contraindicated in individuals with G6PD deficiency.

Sulfamethoxazole & Trimethoprim

7

This antibiotic increases the effects of warfarin and lithium. It should not be given in the first trimester of pregnancy or with lactation. It is also contraindicated in liver disease

Metronidazole

8

This medication increases the risk of nephrotoxicity when taken with cephalosporins

Aminoglycosides

9

This antibiotic works by inhibiting DNA gyrase.

It should not be given with aluminum or magnesium antacids because it creates insoluble salts with this antibiotic. It can reduce serum antibiotic levels by 90%

Ciprofloxacin

10

This antibiotic can be given to beta-hemolytic streptococcus, Strep pyogenes, and MRSA. It is also used in impetigo (S.aureus)

Mupirocin

11

May cause argyria (blue discolouration of the skin).

Silver nitrate

12

This antibiotic has antimicrobial activity against mycobacterium and mycoplasma (walking pneumonia).

This antibiotic may decrease caffeine excretion therefore coffee abstinence is recommended

Ciprofloxacin

13

You need to monitor methemoglobin levels while on this medication because it increases the methemoglobin (ferric-containing hemoglobin, as opposed to the standard ferrous-containing Hgb) levels in the blood that ultimately reduces oxygen delivery to the tissue.

Silver nitrate

14

What antibiotic class is most likely to cause pseudomembranous colitis?

Cephalosporins

15

This medication should be discontinued if seizures or paraesthesia begin; due to its neurotoxic adverse effects

Metronidazole

16

This medication should not be used in mayasthenia gravis or SLE because it may exacerbate the respective conditions

Tetracyclines & Doxycycline

17

This antibiotic reduces the absorption of iron and calcium. It is often used for moderately severe acne. It used to be indicated in many other infections but mass resistance has occurred

Tetracyclines (not doxycycline though)

18

What antibiotic has unpredictable interactions with erythromycin, aminoglycosides, and chloramphenicol

Beta-lactams (Amoxicillin/Penicillin)

19

This medication has a potentially fatal interaction with Astemizole and terfenadine. It also has a serious risk of toxicity when taken with digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporine, and bromocriptine.

Azithromycin

20

This antimicrobial is bactericidal and may cause pseudomembranous colitis, hypoprothrombinemia, and vitamin K deficiency

Cephalexin

21

What antibiotic classes have antimicrobial activity against spirochetes?

Macrolides, Beta-lactams, Tetracyclines

22

Antimicrobial activity against haemophilus influenzae, E. coli, Listeria, proteus mirabilis, salmonella, shigella, and enterococci

Amoxicillin

Mnemonic = Amoxicillin HELPSS against enterococci

23

i.) Clinical Use
a.) roundworm infection (ascariasis), tapeworm infection, hookworm infection, whipworm infection

ii.) Mechanism
a.) Destroys microtubules in parasitic worms

iii.) Side Effects
a.) This medication is not absorbed, therefore the medication is generally safe

iv.) Contraindications
a.) may be teratogenic

Mebendazole

24

Used in oral candidiasis. This medication can be swished and swallowed. Systemically it is toxic but orally very little is absorbed.

Nystatin

25

Guanosine (nucleoside) analog that inhibits viral DNA polymerase by chain termination. It works against HSV, VZV, EBV. This medication also potentiates Zidovudine in HIV treatment.

Acyclovir

26

In what type of person is Zidovudine's toxicity potentiated in?

Obese people

27

i.) Clinical Use
a.) Rheumatoid Arthritis & Sjogren's
b.) Lupus
c.) Malaria

ii.) Mechanism
a.) DMARD anti-inflammatory by blocking Toll-like receptors

iii.) Side Effects
a.) Nausea
b.) Altered Eye pigmentation & Toxicity to the cornea/macula (toxicity is r/t dosage and length of time taking)
c.) Anemia
d.) Bleaching of hair
e.) Blisters in mouth & eyes

iv.) Contraindications
a.) G6PD
b.) Children
c.) Pregnancy & Lactation

Hydroxychloroquine

28

Inhibits squalene epoxidase in trichophyton & candida species of fungi. It is used to treat dermatophytoses, especially onychomycosis

Terbinafine

29

Used for anaerobic respiratory infections (Clostridium, bacteroides), aspiration pneumonia, and abscesses. It can also be applied topically for acne, and given orally in some cases of MRSA

Clindamycin

30

This anti-fungal agent may cause Steven-Johnson Syndrome, pancytopenia, visual disturbances, vertigo, and hepatic failure.

Terbinafine

31

3rd generation cephalosporin used in acute appendicitis, otitis media, and respiratory infections such as community pneumonia and strep throat

Cefidinir

32

i.) Clinical Use
a.) Chronic Hepatitis B & C (minimally effective in HepC genotype 1b)
b.) Kaposi's sarcoma
c.) Renal Cell carcinoma
d.) Esophageal or Colorectal Cancer (given with 5-FU)
e.) Metastatic Malignant Melanoma

ii.) Mechanism
a.) Antiviral - inhibiting protein synthesis & inducing apoptosis in host cells

iii.) Side Effects
a.) Mild Bone Marrow Suppression
b.) Hair Loss & Sexual Dysfunction
c.) Depression & Insomnia
d.) Debilitating Fatigue

iv.) Contraindications
a.) Pregnancy
b.) Renal insufficiency
c.) Hypothyroidism
d.) Thrombocytopenia
e.) Organ transplant, Diabetes, Autoimmune diseases

Interferon-alpha

33

This topical agent should not be applied to the breast if breastfeeding because it is a neurotoxin if ingested

Permethrin

34

A medication that inhibits TNF-alpha, which long-term may result in reactivation of latent infections or (rarely) cause lymphoma.

Adalimumab

35

A medication that can be given concomitantly with methotrexate in RA, that nearly doubles the response rate

Adalimumab

36

This anti-fungal is used as a single dose for vaginal candidiasis. It may cause gynecomastia in men and can be used to treat hypercortisolemia.

Fluconazole

37

Often used in diaper rash this medication has the same mechanism of action as amphotericin B (binds to ergosterol?

Nystatin

38

i.) Clinical Use
a.) HIV/AIDS and prevent transmission to fetus
b.) Post-exposure prophylaxis

ii.) Mechanism
a.) Nucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase

iii.) Side Effects
a.) Neutropenia from bone marrow suppression (80%)
b.) Peripheral Neuropathy
c.) Myalgia and muscle wasting
d.) Encephalitis & Seizures

iv.) Contraindications
a.) Bone marrow failure
b.) Myositis
c.) Caution with obesity (may increase toxicity)

Zidovudine