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Flashcards in Immunity Deck (53)
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What is the first line of defense against injury?

Inflammation

1

What is the second line of defense against injury?

Immunity

2

The acquired immune response defends the body against injury particularly against microorganisms. what does this response to do when an organism enters the body a second time?

It responds by remembering that micro organism.

3

Which response does not involve memory and is described with the first line of defense of inflammation?

Innate

4

Antigens are also foreign nonself substances which are also called what?

Immunogens

5

Antigens mainly consist of proteins and are microorganisms and they are field with what?

Toxins

6

What term is used to describe when the body does not recognize antigens

Immunodeficiency

7

What term is used for the body that over reacts to antigens

Hypersensitivity

8

Antigens being nonself include which of the following?

Organ transplant
Tissue graft
Blood transfusions

All

9

What is the cell that is primarily WBC involved in the Immune response?

Lymphocyte

10

In AIDS patients a certain sale is abnormal which sale is this

Natural killer cell

11

Where are lymphocytes derived from and what is the percentage of van that makes up the white blood cell portion?

Bone marrow

20-25%

12

What are the three main types of lymphocytes?

B cell
T cell
NK cell

13

B cells develop from stem cells in the bone marrow they reside in mature in what kind of tissue

Lymphoid tissue/tonsils

14

The basic (Ig) structure of an antibody or immunoglobulin forms a Y shape describe the polypeptide chains.

There are 4 polypeptide chains.
Two identical heavy polypeptides
and two identical light polypeptides

15

There are two main types of B cells: memory and plasma cell.

which one retains memory of antigen

B memory

16

How does the B memory cell perform clonal selection?

It duplicates itself in order to have the capacity to recognize the antigen

17

Plasma cells produce and release copies of particular proteins in response to the presence of an antigen.

What are these proteins called

Antibodies

18

Antibodies are also called what

Immunoglobulins

19

Name the five different types of immunoglobulins

MADGE

Igm
Iga
Igd
Igg
Ige

20

Describe what the immunoglobulins do.
Igm
Iga
Igd
Igg
Ige

M. First to react
A. Tears, breastmilk
D. Activates B cell
G. 75% of serum, passes thru placenta
E. Parasites and histamine

21

What is the level of a specific antibodies in the blood called

Antibody Titer

22

How is antibody titer measured

Laboratory tests

23

What is the combination of a specific antibody with a specific antigen

Emu complex

24

Where does the T lymphocytes mature

Thymus

25

What lymphocyte his large at infancy and shrinks as individuals mature

T cell

26

What are the four types of T cells

T helper
T suppressor
T memory
T cytotoxic

27

What does the T-helper cells do

It increases the function of the B cell by a CD4 receptor

28

What does the T suppressor cell do?

Turns off the Bcell

29

What does the T cytotoxic cells do

Carries a CD8 marker and kills viruses and neoplasticism cells ( cancer )

30

Cytokines activate macrophages the first cytokine discovered was a ________which has antiviral properties

Interferon

31

Natural killer cells are part of the body's inmate immunity

What is their ability

To destroy foreign cells as soon as they recognize him without having to use antigens.

32

Macrophages are mediators during inflammation and immunity. It does not retain memory therefore what must happen?

It has to be reactivated

33

In mucosal tissue there is a specialized dendritic cell type called what

Langerhans cells

34

Another name for immunomodulator

Cytokine

35

What are the 2 major divisions of the immune response

Humoral and cell mediated

36

Inflammation is not capable of memory

What do we retain after memory is achieved

Immunity

37

Describe passive immunitiy

Mother passing antibodies through placenta

Can also be acquired

38

Describe active immunity

Acquired for natural

Vaccines or boosters

39

What type of active immunity vaccine should dental personnel get?

Hep B

40

Define Live attenuated (vaccines)

Reduction in severity/potency

41

Definition.

The study of diseases caused by the malfunctioning of the immune system

ImmunoPathology

42

Give two examples of immunopathology

Hypersensitivity and autoimmune disease

43

A.k.a. allergic reactions

Hypersensitivity

44

Type I hypersensitivity

Anaphylactic shock

45

Type II hypersensitivity

RH incompatibility/cytotoxic

46

Type III

Lupus/immune complex

47

IV and example

Delayed hypersensitivity

TB test

Transplant rejection

48

What is another name for the tuberculin test

Purified protein derivative PPD

49

How many deaths per year in the United States are caused from penicillin

300

50

What is the recognition called that deals with autoimmune disease is

Immunologic tolerance

51

Immunodeficiencies can be congenital or acquired

True

52

20% of the population get these
More common in females
Get this from emotional stress and citrus foods
Menstruatio and systemic diseases

Aphthous ulcers