Flashcards in Immunity Deck (53)
What is the first line of defense against injury?
What is the second line of defense against injury?
The acquired immune response defends the body against injury particularly against microorganisms. what does this response to do when an organism enters the body a second time?
It responds by remembering that micro organism.
Which response does not involve memory and is described with the first line of defense of inflammation?
Antigens are also foreign nonself substances which are also called what?
Antigens mainly consist of proteins and are microorganisms and they are field with what?
What term is used to describe when the body does not recognize antigens
What term is used for the body that over reacts to antigens
Antigens being nonself include which of the following?
What is the cell that is primarily WBC involved in the Immune response?
In AIDS patients a certain sale is abnormal which sale is this
Natural killer cell
Where are lymphocytes derived from and what is the percentage of van that makes up the white blood cell portion?
What are the three main types of lymphocytes?
B cells develop from stem cells in the bone marrow they reside in mature in what kind of tissue
The basic (Ig) structure of an antibody or immunoglobulin forms a Y shape describe the polypeptide chains.
There are 4 polypeptide chains.
Two identical heavy polypeptides
and two identical light polypeptides
There are two main types of B cells: memory and plasma cell.
which one retains memory of antigen
How does the B memory cell perform clonal selection?
It duplicates itself in order to have the capacity to recognize the antigen
Plasma cells produce and release copies of particular proteins in response to the presence of an antigen.
What are these proteins called
Antibodies are also called what
Name the five different types of immunoglobulins
Describe what the immunoglobulins do.
M. First to react
A. Tears, breastmilk
D. Activates B cell
G. 75% of serum, passes thru placenta
E. Parasites and histamine
What is the level of a specific antibodies in the blood called
How is antibody titer measured
What is the combination of a specific antibody with a specific antigen
Where does the T lymphocytes mature
What lymphocyte his large at infancy and shrinks as individuals mature
What are the four types of T cells
What does the T-helper cells do
It increases the function of the B cell by a CD4 receptor
What does the T suppressor cell do?
Turns off the Bcell
What does the T cytotoxic cells do
Carries a CD8 marker and kills viruses and neoplasticism cells ( cancer )
Cytokines activate macrophages the first cytokine discovered was a ________which has antiviral properties
Natural killer cells are part of the body's inmate immunity
What is their ability
To destroy foreign cells as soon as they recognize him without having to use antigens.
Macrophages are mediators during inflammation and immunity. It does not retain memory therefore what must happen?
It has to be reactivated
In mucosal tissue there is a specialized dendritic cell type called what
Another name for immunomodulator
What are the 2 major divisions of the immune response
Humoral and cell mediated
Inflammation is not capable of memory
What do we retain after memory is achieved
Describe passive immunitiy
Mother passing antibodies through placenta
Can also be acquired
Describe active immunity
Acquired for natural
Vaccines or boosters
What type of active immunity vaccine should dental personnel get?
Define Live attenuated (vaccines)
Reduction in severity/potency
The study of diseases caused by the malfunctioning of the immune system
Give two examples of immunopathology
Hypersensitivity and autoimmune disease
A.k.a. allergic reactions
Type I hypersensitivity
Type II hypersensitivity
IV and example
What is another name for the tuberculin test
Purified protein derivative PPD
How many deaths per year in the United States are caused from penicillin
What is the recognition called that deals with autoimmune disease is
Immunodeficiencies can be congenital or acquired