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BIOL-L 112 Exam 3 > Immunity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunity Deck (94):
1

Immunology

Study of how the body responds to and resists foreign pathogens and other foreign substances

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What is Smallpox caused by?

Variola Major

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Smallpox is Ltin for

Spotted, refers to rash

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Survivors of Smallpox are

Severerly scarred

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Characteristics of Smallpox are

Ulcerations of cornea cause blindness

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How is smallpox spread?

By respiratory route and fomites (inamimate)

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How big was smallpox?

Most likely te most significant disease in history

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What was the fatality rate and how many people died from Smallpox?

30% fatality rate
300-500 million dead in 20th C

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Who caused the outbreak in Indians?

Lord Jeffrey Amherest, and he inoculated Indians by the use of contaiminated blankets

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Early Stage of Smallpox?

Asymptomatic, non infectious with an incubation period of 7-17 days

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Smallpox; Day 4

Fever, Vomiting, Malaise

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Smallpox; Day 5

Pustule Rash Formation

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Where does the Rash first start out?

In the mouth, then the arms, and then the hands

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Variolation

Deliberate Infection with Smallpox

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What did Lady Montague do?

Variolated her children in 1721

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Problems of Variolation?

Highly Variable Procedure
Fatalities
Skin Lesions Less Than Attractive
Variolated patients are infectious

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Benjamin Jetsy

Milkmaids got cowpox
Inoculated wife and children
Received no smallpox, mild cowpox

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Edward Jenner

Inoculated James Phipps with cowpox. Variolated him twice then with Smallpox. Did not get skin lesions or smallpox

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Attenuation

To weaken a viable pathogen

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Louis Pasteur

Forgot about chicken cholera over weekend. Figured old straisn did not kill chickens

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How can one achieve attenuation?

Heat kill
Serial Passage in Eggs
Passage in cell culture or on palates
Genetic Engineering

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Anthrax

Caused by Bacillus Anthracis
Pasteur treated sheep with attenuated strain
Vaccine afforded complete protection from disease

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Rabies

Caused by rabies virus.
Causes foam at mouth, aggressive, then paralysis

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What is "the fate of old yeller"?

Rabies

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Joseph Meister

Received the first rabies vaccine. Pasteur inoculated him with attenuated rabies.

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Polio

Spread via feces
4-5% developed respiratory, non-paralytic polio
<1% paralytic polio, mucular weakness.

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Salks Vaccine

Inactivated injected form , IPV in 1953

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Sabins Vaccine

Oral Attenuated Form , OPV in 1961

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Symptoms of Ebola

Fever, Fatigue, Muscle Pain, headache, and Sore Throat. Followed by vomiting, symptoms of impaired kdiney and liver function and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding

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EBV Treatment; Supportive Care-Rehydration

With oral or intravenous fluids. Treatment of specific symptoms improves survival.

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HIV and Ebola Mutation Rate

HIV has high mutation rate, and Ebola has low mutation rate

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Immunology

The study of how the body responds to and resists pathogens and other foreign substances

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What does the body do to fight pathogens?

Animals immune system must detect foreign particles and cells, and distinguish non self from self

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Lymphatic System

Network of vessels, tissues, and organs that helps the body to get rid of toxins, waste, pathogens

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Adaptive Response

Drains, removes ISF from tissues and elivers foreign materials to nodes for immune assessment

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Lympathetic System maintains Fluid Homeostasis

Maintains fluid balance between blood versus tissue

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What things does the Lymphatic System facilitate and Transport?

Transport of Fatty Acids and White Blood Cells

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3 Lines of Defense

External
Internal
Adaptive

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Innate

Fully ready to response before an invader has been encountered

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Two categories for Innate Response

External and Internal

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Innate Response; External

Tough outer skin impenetrable, and secretions with mucous membranes covered with sticky mucus

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Innate Response; Internal

Phagocytic Cells, Natural Killer Cells, Defensive proteins, Inflammatory response

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Adaptive Response

Activated by exposure to specific invader

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What do Lymphocytes do?

Have B Cells (Antibodies & Humoral Response) and T Cells (Cell Mediated Response)

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Inflammatory Response (1)

Tissue Injury, Release of chemical signals such as histamine

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Inflammatory Response (2)

Dilation and increased leakiness of local blood vessels; Migration of phagocytic cells to the area

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Inflammatory Response (3)

Phagocytic cells engulf bacteria and cell debris; tissue heals

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Damaged cells releas chemicals that

increase blood flow to the damaged area and turns the wound red and warm

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Anti-informatatory drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen..

dampen the inflammatory response and reduce swelling and fever

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B Cells

Mature in the Bone Marrow (Humoral Immunity

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Humoral Immune REsponse

Is the secretion of free-floating antibodies into the blood and lymph caused by B Cells

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T Cells

Mature in the Thymus and contain Th, Tc, Td, and Ts

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B cells and T cells eventually make their way to

Lymph Nodes and Other Lymphatic Organs

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Antigens

Are molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells and elicit a response from a lymphocyte

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Antibodies are made up of

2 Light Chains and 2 Heavy Chains

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Each light chain bound to heavy chain by

Disulfide

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Each heavy chain bound to

heavy chain

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Clonal Selection

Generate B and T cells appropriate to the invading antigen. Mechanism that underlies the immune systems specificty and memory of antigens.

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Phagocyte Break Down (1)

Phagocytic cell breaks microbe into antigen fragments

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Phagocyte Break Down (2)

Self protein binds to antigen

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Phagocyte Break Down (3)

Self protein displas antigen on surface

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Phagocyte Break Down (4)

Receptor on helper T cell binds to the protein-antigen combination

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Cytotoxic T Cells

Are the only T cells that kill infected cells. Identify and find cells through a HLA-Ag - TCR complex

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T Cell Breakdown (1)

Cytotoxic T cell binds to infected cell, becoming activated and producing perforin

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T Cell Breakdown (2)

Perforin makes holes in infected cell's plasma membrane

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T Cell Breakdown (3)

Other proteins enter target cell through holes created by perforin

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T Cell Breakdown (4)

Infected cell is destroyed by lysis (bursting)

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Primary Immune Response

First response to exposure of lymphocytes to an antigen and takes 7-14 days to produce effector cells via clonal selection

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clonal Selectio produces

Effector Cells (Produce antibodies and are short lived) and Memory Cells (Long-Lived, lasting decades

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In the secondary immune response, memory cells

bind to the antigen and initiate a faster and stronger response

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Vaccination confronts the immune system with..

a vaccine, which includes a harmless version of a disease-causing microbe or one of its parts

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4 Type of Risk Groups

Living in Close Quarters
International Travellers
Working with Infected Animals or Animal Products
Military & Some Civilans

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Living in Close Quarters includes

College students, military, elderly.
Meningitis , Pneumonia, Infleunza, HPV

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International Travelers includes

Cholera, Yellow Fever, Plague, Typhoid, Hepatitis

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Working with Infected Animals or Animal Products includes

Anthrax, SARS

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Militar and Some Civilians includes

Anthrax Spores and Botulism

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Autism Spectrum Disorder

A group fo complex disorders of brain development - Patients Communicate, Interact, Behave, Learn Differently, Rigid Repetitive Behavior

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Herd Immunity

Means protecting a community from disease by immunizing a critical mass of its populace

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R0 = r nought = Basic Reproduction Number

How many people one infected person can pass the disease onto during its infectious period in an unprotected population

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Disease Threshold

Minimum number of immune individuals necessary in a population to prevent a outbreak

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Passive immunity

Premade antibodies from another animal

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Passive immunity from a mother

IgGs from mother through placenta to fetus
IgAs from mothers milk

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Passive immunity from animals

Anti-Snake Venom = IgGs against venom made in humans/animals

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Allergies are..

Exaggerated sensitivites to harmmless antigens in the environment

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Allergic Response incldes

Runny Nose, Headaches, Rash, Breathing Trouble, Nausea, Diarrhea, Anaphylactic Shock

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Anaphylactic Shock

Induced by a heavy dose of allergens. Is especially dangerous type of allergic reaction and counteracted with injections of epinephrine

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Two stages in a allergy

Initial Exposure (Sensitization)
Later Exposure

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Autoimmune Disease

When the immune system improperly turns against the bodys own molecules, it can lead to serious autoimmune diseases

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Example of Autoimmune Diseases

Lupus
Insulin-Dependent Diabetes
Multiple Sclerosis
Rheumatoid Arthritis

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Immunodeficiency Diseases

result when one or more of the components of the immune system are lacking and leave people more susceptible to infections

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Immunodeficiency Disease two group

Congenital and Acquired

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AIDS

Attacks Helper T Cell and Severely Impairs Humoral B Cells and Cell Mediated Immunity (T) Cells

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HIV Mutation Rate

Has one of the fastest rates of mutation of any pathogen every studied

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Hayflick Limit - Aging =

Slow erosio of telomeres over the course of our lifetimes