Flashcards in Immunity Deck (94):
Study of how the body responds to and resists foreign pathogens and other foreign substances
What is Smallpox caused by?
Smallpox is Ltin for
Spotted, refers to rash
Survivors of Smallpox are
Characteristics of Smallpox are
Ulcerations of cornea cause blindness
How is smallpox spread?
By respiratory route and fomites (inamimate)
How big was smallpox?
Most likely te most significant disease in history
What was the fatality rate and how many people died from Smallpox?
30% fatality rate
300-500 million dead in 20th C
Who caused the outbreak in Indians?
Lord Jeffrey Amherest, and he inoculated Indians by the use of contaiminated blankets
Early Stage of Smallpox?
Asymptomatic, non infectious with an incubation period of 7-17 days
Smallpox; Day 4
Fever, Vomiting, Malaise
Smallpox; Day 5
Pustule Rash Formation
Where does the Rash first start out?
In the mouth, then the arms, and then the hands
Deliberate Infection with Smallpox
What did Lady Montague do?
Variolated her children in 1721
Problems of Variolation?
Highly Variable Procedure
Skin Lesions Less Than Attractive
Variolated patients are infectious
Milkmaids got cowpox
Inoculated wife and children
Received no smallpox, mild cowpox
Inoculated James Phipps with cowpox. Variolated him twice then with Smallpox. Did not get skin lesions or smallpox
To weaken a viable pathogen
Forgot about chicken cholera over weekend. Figured old straisn did not kill chickens
How can one achieve attenuation?
Serial Passage in Eggs
Passage in cell culture or on palates
Caused by Bacillus Anthracis
Pasteur treated sheep with attenuated strain
Vaccine afforded complete protection from disease
Caused by rabies virus.
Causes foam at mouth, aggressive, then paralysis
What is "the fate of old yeller"?
Received the first rabies vaccine. Pasteur inoculated him with attenuated rabies.
Spread via feces
4-5% developed respiratory, non-paralytic polio
<1% paralytic polio, mucular weakness.
Inactivated injected form , IPV in 1953
Oral Attenuated Form , OPV in 1961
Symptoms of Ebola
Fever, Fatigue, Muscle Pain, headache, and Sore Throat. Followed by vomiting, symptoms of impaired kdiney and liver function and in some cases, both internal and external bleeding
EBV Treatment; Supportive Care-Rehydration
With oral or intravenous fluids. Treatment of specific symptoms improves survival.
HIV and Ebola Mutation Rate
HIV has high mutation rate, and Ebola has low mutation rate
The study of how the body responds to and resists pathogens and other foreign substances
What does the body do to fight pathogens?
Animals immune system must detect foreign particles and cells, and distinguish non self from self
Network of vessels, tissues, and organs that helps the body to get rid of toxins, waste, pathogens
Drains, removes ISF from tissues and elivers foreign materials to nodes for immune assessment
Lympathetic System maintains Fluid Homeostasis
Maintains fluid balance between blood versus tissue
What things does the Lymphatic System facilitate and Transport?
Transport of Fatty Acids and White Blood Cells
3 Lines of Defense
Fully ready to response before an invader has been encountered
Two categories for Innate Response
External and Internal
Innate Response; External
Tough outer skin impenetrable, and secretions with mucous membranes covered with sticky mucus
Innate Response; Internal
Phagocytic Cells, Natural Killer Cells, Defensive proteins, Inflammatory response
Activated by exposure to specific invader
What do Lymphocytes do?
Have B Cells (Antibodies & Humoral Response) and T Cells (Cell Mediated Response)
Inflammatory Response (1)
Tissue Injury, Release of chemical signals such as histamine
Inflammatory Response (2)
Dilation and increased leakiness of local blood vessels; Migration of phagocytic cells to the area
Inflammatory Response (3)
Phagocytic cells engulf bacteria and cell debris; tissue heals
Damaged cells releas chemicals that
increase blood flow to the damaged area and turns the wound red and warm
Anti-informatatory drugs such as aspirin and ibuprofen..
dampen the inflammatory response and reduce swelling and fever
Mature in the Bone Marrow (Humoral Immunity
Humoral Immune REsponse
Is the secretion of free-floating antibodies into the blood and lymph caused by B Cells
Mature in the Thymus and contain Th, Tc, Td, and Ts
B cells and T cells eventually make their way to
Lymph Nodes and Other Lymphatic Organs
Are molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells and elicit a response from a lymphocyte
Antibodies are made up of
2 Light Chains and 2 Heavy Chains
Each light chain bound to heavy chain by
Each heavy chain bound to
Generate B and T cells appropriate to the invading antigen. Mechanism that underlies the immune systems specificty and memory of antigens.
Phagocyte Break Down (1)
Phagocytic cell breaks microbe into antigen fragments
Phagocyte Break Down (2)
Self protein binds to antigen
Phagocyte Break Down (3)
Self protein displas antigen on surface
Phagocyte Break Down (4)
Receptor on helper T cell binds to the protein-antigen combination
Cytotoxic T Cells
Are the only T cells that kill infected cells. Identify and find cells through a HLA-Ag - TCR complex
T Cell Breakdown (1)
Cytotoxic T cell binds to infected cell, becoming activated and producing perforin
T Cell Breakdown (2)
Perforin makes holes in infected cell's plasma membrane
T Cell Breakdown (3)
Other proteins enter target cell through holes created by perforin
T Cell Breakdown (4)
Infected cell is destroyed by lysis (bursting)
Primary Immune Response
First response to exposure of lymphocytes to an antigen and takes 7-14 days to produce effector cells via clonal selection
clonal Selectio produces
Effector Cells (Produce antibodies and are short lived) and Memory Cells (Long-Lived, lasting decades
In the secondary immune response, memory cells
bind to the antigen and initiate a faster and stronger response
Vaccination confronts the immune system with..
a vaccine, which includes a harmless version of a disease-causing microbe or one of its parts
4 Type of Risk Groups
Living in Close Quarters
Working with Infected Animals or Animal Products
Military & Some Civilans
Living in Close Quarters includes
College students, military, elderly.
Meningitis , Pneumonia, Infleunza, HPV
International Travelers includes
Cholera, Yellow Fever, Plague, Typhoid, Hepatitis
Working with Infected Animals or Animal Products includes
Militar and Some Civilians includes
Anthrax Spores and Botulism
Autism Spectrum Disorder
A group fo complex disorders of brain development - Patients Communicate, Interact, Behave, Learn Differently, Rigid Repetitive Behavior
Means protecting a community from disease by immunizing a critical mass of its populace
R0 = r nought = Basic Reproduction Number
How many people one infected person can pass the disease onto during its infectious period in an unprotected population
Minimum number of immune individuals necessary in a population to prevent a outbreak
Premade antibodies from another animal
Passive immunity from a mother
IgGs from mother through placenta to fetus
IgAs from mothers milk
Passive immunity from animals
Anti-Snake Venom = IgGs against venom made in humans/animals
Exaggerated sensitivites to harmmless antigens in the environment
Allergic Response incldes
Runny Nose, Headaches, Rash, Breathing Trouble, Nausea, Diarrhea, Anaphylactic Shock
Induced by a heavy dose of allergens. Is especially dangerous type of allergic reaction and counteracted with injections of epinephrine
Two stages in a allergy
Initial Exposure (Sensitization)
When the immune system improperly turns against the bodys own molecules, it can lead to serious autoimmune diseases
Example of Autoimmune Diseases
result when one or more of the components of the immune system are lacking and leave people more susceptible to infections
Immunodeficiency Disease two group
Congenital and Acquired
Attacks Helper T Cell and Severely Impairs Humoral B Cells and Cell Mediated Immunity (T) Cells
HIV Mutation Rate
Has one of the fastest rates of mutation of any pathogen every studied