Immunity/Lymphatic System Flashcards Preview

202 Lecture Exam 2 > Immunity/Lymphatic System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Immunity/Lymphatic System Deck (116):
1

Which immune reactions are present at birth?

Nonspecific

2

What is the role of natural killer cells?

Recognize a substance as "not me" and attack it

3

What is the role of specific immune response?

To recognize and remember specific antigens; second response more rapid and rigorous

4

What are four of the body's first-line defenses?

Skin, mucous membranes, gastric juices, lysozymes

5

What does gastric juice do for immunity?

It kills bacteria

6

What do lysozymes do for immunity?

Break down bacteria cell walls

7

Where are lysozymes found?

Tears, saliva, sweat, nasal secretions

8

What are some examples of second-line defenses?

Complement system, transferrin, interferons, phagocytes, ect.

9

What is the complement system?

A series of protein molecules in a chain reaction that kills microbes and causes inflammation

10

What is transferrin?

Protein in blood that binds iron and prevents bacteria from accessing it

11

What are interferons?

Tell neighboring cells how to stop viral replication

12

Which cells secrete interferons?

Lymphocytes, macrophages, and fibroblasts

13

What is sebum?

Oil on the skin that stops bacterial and fungal growth

14

What are natural killer cells?

Cells that patrol the body tissues and kill enemy cells (cancer) use perforin

15

What are phagocytes?

Cells that ingest foreign debris/cells

16

What are the 4 responses of inflammation (English and Latin)?

1. Heat (Calor)
2. Swelling (Tumor)
3. Pain (Dolor)
4. Redness (Rubor)

17

What is local vasodilation a mechanism of?

Inflammation

18

What is the purpose of local vasodilation?

Blood vessels expand to become more leaky in one location; lets immune cells move from blood to the tissues

19

What are the main chemicals that cause vasodilation?

Histamines and leukotrienes

20

What is local edema a mechanism of?

Inflammation

21

How does local edema work?

Causes fluid to leave capillaries; local swelling; helps "wash away" byproducts of battles with bacteria

22

What 4 things happen when leukocytes get involved in the inflammatory process?

1. Margination
2. Diapedesis
3. Chemotaxis
4. Phagocytosis

23

What is it called when WBCs in bloodstream move towards the edge of the capillary?

Margination

24

What is is called when WBCs squeeze out of the capillary and into tissues?

Diapedesis

25

What is chemotaxis?

Chemicals that guide phagocytes to where the battle isq

26

What is phagocytosis?

Neutrophils and macrophages that eat bacteria and debris

27

What is the name for the coating of an antigen with molecules that help phagocytes eat it?

Opsonization

28

What is the name of the proteins used in opsonization?

opsonin

29

What are chemicals that cause a fever called?

Pyrogens

30

What is the complement system?

A non-specific immune defense; involves proteins that work together to form a membrane attack complex (MAC) on a cell membrane; promote chemotaxis

31

How does a MAC cause cytolysis?

A huge hole in the cell, fluid rushes in and bursts the cells

32

What is fever?

A non-specific immune defense, intensified effects of interferons, inhibit bacterial growth, speeds up enzymes

33

What causes a fever?

bacterial toxins that trigger release of cytokines, tell hypothalamus to reset the body's temperature

34

What are "self-antigens"?

Antigens that identify our own cells

35

What molecules tell the immune system if there is a problem inside of a cell?

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

36

What is antigen presentation?

When a phagocyte phagocytizes a bacterium and puts a fragment of the ingested bacteria on the outside (skull on a spike)

37

What are antigen presenting cells?

Dendritic cells, macrophages, and B-cells that combine the bacterial bit with the MHC II complex to display to the helper T-cells

38

What are MHC I cells?

Major Histocompatibility Cells; self-antigens on all body cells that help the T-cells identify self; found on outside of cell in emergency

39

What are MHC II cells?

Receptors cell (usually APC) makes, bind with antigen and displays it on cell surface (pole for the skull)

40

What are the two types of T-cells?

Helper T-cells and Cytotoxic T-cells

41

What on the T-cell binds to the antigen?

T-cell receptors (TCR)

42

What do B-cell receptors do?

Identify foreign antigens

43

What protein helps helper t-cells bind with APCs?

CD4 proteins

44

What protein helps cytotoxic t-cells bind with infected/damaged cells?

CD8

45

Where does the MCH II reside?

On the macrophage that has eaten the bacteria

46

What is Cell-mediated immunity?

MHC I pathway
- MHC I
- cytotoxic T
- perforin (big boom)

47

To what does the term "immune surveillance" refer?

Cytotoxic T cells, macrophages, and NK cells roaming the halls looking for invaders

48

What is humoral immunity?

Antibody-mediated immunity; uses body fluids instead of locking things up inside the cell

49

In humoral immunity, what happens when a bacterium is detected?

Macrophage/dendritic cell eats (phagocytizes) it and digests it (with lysozymes)

50

In humoral immunity, once the bacteria is digested and torn into pieces, what happens?

- MHC II complex displays it outside macrophage
- Helper T cell comes
- attaches with TCR and CD4

51

Once the T cell is attached to the MHC II, what happens?

- T cell replicates
- creates memory cells
- replicants create fever via interleukins

52

What cells do T cells communicate with concerning the invader?

B-cells

53

Where in the lymphatic tissues can B-cells be found?

Lymph nodes, spleen, Peyer's patches

54

What activates lymphatic B-cells?

T-cells or direct contact with bacteria

55

What is the name for mature B-cells?

Plasma cells

56

What do plasma cells do in the body?

Release enzymes against the enemy

57

What kind of cells have a large amount of rough ER?

B-cells

58

What does the rough ER?

Make antibodies which are proteins - enzymes to kill invaders

59

What are dendritic cells?

The main type of APC; used to engulf and process antigens and present the antigen to other cells

60

Where are dendritic cells found?

Skin, nose, lungs, intestines

61

Describe the composition of antibodies

Proteins with 2 light chains and 2 heavy chains

62

What are the 5 classes of antibodies?

IgA, IgB, IgD, IgE, IgM

63

What does the Ig in IgA stand for?

Immunoglobluins

64

What do antigens combine with?

The antigenic determinant (head of skull) that triggered its production

65

What neutralizes toxins to prevent spreading?

Antibodies

66

Describe antibody agglutination

One antibody binds to 2 or more foreign cells at the same time acting like glue that makes them stick together

67

Is the primary response of antibodies and b-cells strong or weak, and why?

Weak, it doesn't have memory yet

68

What factors contribute to the strength of a secondary reaction to a foreign invader?

Thousands of memory cells proliferate into plasma cells and cytotoxic t-cell; recognition and removal is swift

69

What is the most common form of artificially acquired active immunity?

Vaccinations

70

How do vaccines work?

Stimulate cell and antibody-mediated immune response - creates memory cells

71

Of what are vaccines composed?

Immunogenic (not pathogenic) antigens

72

What causes autoimmune disorders?

The immune system mistaking normal self antigens for foreign invading antigens

73

Why might the body attack the heart if it is infected by streptococcus?

It looks like heart valve antigens

74

In what disease does the body attack the myelin sheath of neurons?

Multiple sclerosis

75

In what disease does the body attack the skin?

Dermatomyositis

76

In what disease does the body attack the joints?

Rheumatoid arthritis

77

What is an allergy reaction?

A hypersensitivity reaction

78

What is a Type 1 allergic reaction?

Actual allergy; anaphylaxis - death is on the table

79

What is a Type 2 allergic reaction?

Cytotoxic: antibodies directed against blood cells or tissue cells (ex. blood transfusion)

80

What is a Type 3 allergic reaction?

Immune complex: when a cluster of bacteria/viruses/etc. gets attacked, can damage kidneys

81

What is a Type 4 allergic reaction?

Delayed hypersensitivity reaction: 12-72 hours later

82

What causes a Type 4 reaction?

Intracellular bacteria also some food sensitivities

83

What is the difference between naturally and artificially acquired active immunity?

Naturally = production of one's own antibodies or T cells from antigen exposure
Artificially = From vaccination, weakened antigens trigger antibodies

84

What is the difference between naturally and artificially acquired passive immunity?

Naturally = antibodies from another person (hi, mom!)
Artificially = injection of immune serum from another person or animal with antibodies toward specific pathogens

85

What is the primary difference between lymphatic and circulatory capillaries?

Lymphatic carry lymph, circulatory carry blood

86

Are lymphatic capillaries or circulatory ones larger?

Lymphatic are larger

87

Describe the structure of lymphatic capillaries

One way structure permits interstitial fluid to flow into vessel but not out, has a valve

88

Where does the lymphatic system start?

Lymphatic capillaries

89

What structural adaptations enable lymphatic capillaries to absorb extracellular fluid?

- Ends of endothelial cells overlap
- Greater pressure outside allows capillaries to fill

90

What is the general flow of structures in the lymphatic system?

Capillaries - vessels - trunks - ducts

91

What is the thoracic duct?

The left lymphatic duct

92

Where does the thoracic duct begin?

Dilation in the abdomen, the "cisterna chyli"

93

From the cisterna chyli, where does the lymph fluid move?

Toward the merging point of the left subclavian and jugular veins, then back to blood circulation

94

What does the right lymphatic duct drain?

Upper right side of the body

95

Where does the right lymphatic duct flow into?

The merging point of the right subclavian and right jugular veins

96

What does the thoracic duct drain?

Everything except the upper right side of the body and head

97

What is the gross anatomy of a lymph node?

- encapsulated
- bean shaped
- central medulla (with t cells, b cells, plasma cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages)

98

What vessels bring lymph into a node?

Afferent lymphatic vessels

99

What vessels take lymph out of a node?

Efferent lymphatic vessels

100

What is the function of lymph nodes?

Monitor the lymph for microorganisms, cancer, waste and mount a response

101

What is the gross anatomy of the spleen?

- 5 inches
- under lower ribs on left side
- smooth, convex surface conforms to concave diaphragm

102

What are the two substances found in the spleen?

Red pulp and white pulp

103

What are the 2 parts of red pulp?

1. A blood filled venous sinus
2. Splenic tissue = splenic cords

104

Of what are splenic cords composed?

RBC's, macrophages, lymphocytes, and plasma cells

105

What is the function of splenic red pulp?

Blood filter to remove waste, like damaged RBC's, platelet reservoir

106

What is the role of splenic red pulp for a fetus?

Produce RBC and WBC

107

What composes splenic white pulp?

Lymphocytes and macrophages

108

What is the function of splenic white pulp?

Act like a large lymph, contains b cells, t cells, and macrophages; involved in immunological functions like production of antibodies

109

Where is the thymus located?

Underneath the sternum

110

Describe the anatomy of the thymus

Soft, bi-lobed, full size in childhood then shrinks

111

What is the function of the thymus?

Site of T cell maturation, secrete thymosins (maturation aid)

112

What matures into T cells?

Lymphocytes

113

What is the function of the tonsils?

Sample all substance coming in through the nose or mouth and test for toxins

114

What are the three types of tonsils?

Palatine, pharyngeal, lingual

115

What is the location and function of Peyer's patches?

- "border guards"
- Found in ileum
- aggregated clusters of lymphatic follicles or nodules
- sample ingested items before absorption

116

What might be one of the problems a patient could experience after having the axillary and subclavian lymph nodes removed?

Lymphedema in the arm because of a buildup of lymph fluid