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Flashcards in Immunology 1 Deck (53):
1

What are the primary lymphoid organs?

Thymus and bone marrow

2

Name 4 secondary lymphoid organs

Tonsils
Lymph nodes
Spleen
Peyers patches

3

What are peyers patches?

Lymphoid tissue in wall of small intestine

4

What is the lamina propria?

Mucose associated secondary lymphoid tissue- thin layer of connective tissue below epithilium

5

How long does a lymphocyte spend in an organ before it recirculates?

1-2 days

6

How do lymphocytes leave peripheral tissue?

They drain out of tissue as tissue fluid via the lymphatics system to the lymph nodes (afferent lymphatics)

7

How do lymphocytes return to the blood from the lymph nodes?

Out of lymph nodes via efferent lymphatics and back to blood mainly via thoracic duct

8

Name the polymorphonuclear leucocytes

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Mast cells

9

Name the granulocytes

Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils

10

Example of anti microbial secreted mediators

Antibodies, complement proteins

11

Name regulatory/inflammatory mediators of immunity

Cytokines and histamine

12

What two things does the innate system recognise?

Pathogen associated molecular patterns (pamps) eg. Viral ds DNA and pathogen recognition receptors ( PRRs) eg toll like receptors

13

What is an antigen?

Anything that is recognised by a lymphocyte

14

What is the first immune response after skin is cut?

Immediate local innate response- complement proteins and macrophages

15

What is the early induced response?

Innate/inflammatory: inflammatory mediators from complement macrophages and mast cells attract leucocytes and serum proteins

16

What happens during the later adaptive response?

Antigen carriage by dendritic cells or freely in lymph fluid results in lymphoid tissue activation of T and B lymphocytes and antibody recirculation to site of infection

17

How long does it take for the adaptive immune response to kick in?

5-7 days

18

What is the response to extra cellular infection?

Complement proteins, phagocytes and antibodies

19

What is he response to intercellular vesicular infection?

Helper t-cells if macrophage can't digest it alone

20

Intra-cellular cytosolic infection? Eg viruses

Interferon proteins, natural killer cells and cytotoxic cells

21

What is immunopathology

Diseases involving defects in or inappropriate activity of the immune system

22

What does the cytokines IL-6 do?

Stimulates the liver to produce and excrete acute phase protein- c- reactive pro time and man in binding lectin

23

What does C-reactive protein do?

C reactive protein acts as a pattern recognition protein. It binds to phosphocholine which is part of the bacterial lipopolysaccharides

24

What does man in binding lectin do?

Binds to mannose residues in bacterial carbohydrate

25

Give examples of macrophages PRRs

Mannose receptors, glucagon receptors, LPS receptors

26

What are toll like receptors?

Proteins expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells that recognise Structurally conserved molecules derived from microbes

27

How many antigen receptors and how many pamps are expressed by lymphocytes?

Millions of antigen receptors and ~100 pamps

28

What do you call antibody particles attached to b-cell surface?

Surface immunoglobulins (SIG)

29

What happens when an antigen binds to a SIG?

This triggers the B cell to become a plasma cell that secretes antibodies

30

True or false a B cell has thousands of SIG that all recognise the same epitope

True

31

What are B cells that recognise the same antigen called?

B cell clones

32

What do B cells do before they become a plasma cell?

They proliferate. Some stay as memory B cells

33

What are B cells called that have never seen an antigen before?

Naive cells

34

What is used for tetanus immunisation?

Tetanus toxoid (inactive but structurally identical form)

35

Name the two types of light chains

Kappa (k) and lambda

36

What are the heavy chains for IgA, IgE, IgG IgM and IgD

Mu, alpha, gamma, delta, epsilon

37

How many types of IgG is there and how many types of IgA?

Four types of IgG (1,2,3,4) and two types of IgA (1,2)

38

What is the area of an Ig that binds antigen called?

Fab: fragment antigen binding made up of one constant and variable chain of both heavy and light

39

What is the FC region

Fragment crystallisable region. Made up of constant heavy domains of antibody. Interact with cell surface FC receptors

40

How is an Ig class defined?

From constant domains of heavy chain.

41

How are chains held together?

By covalent bonds.

42

What encodes the heavy chains?

2 separate genes- 1 for variable and 1 for constant

43

What are B cells all originally programmed to produce?

IgM and some IgD

44

How many antigen combining sites does IgM have?

10. It is a pentamer

45

Which Ig forms a secretory dimer?

IgA

46

Which Ig are monomers?

IgE, IgD and IgG

47

Where is IgM mostly found?

The blood

48

Where is IgG mostly found?

Blood, tissue and placental tranfer

49

Where is IgA and IgA dimer found?

IgA in blood and tissues and the dimer in mucosal secretions and milk.

50

Where is IgE found?

In tissues bound to mast cells

51

Where is Iga1 and iga2 mostly found?

Iga1 is mostly found in serum an iga2 is mostly found in secretions

52

What keeps IgM structure together?

Disulphide bonds and a joining chain

53

Where is IgD found

Found in membrane of immature B cells and can also be secreted in serum