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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (31):
1

What is an antigen?

-A foreign substance that can cause an immune response

2

What is an epitope?

-immunologically active site on antigen
-interacts with antibody

3

What are major histocompatibility complex molecules? (MHC)

-Self-ID models. Unique for individuals
-Class 1: found on all nucleated molecules (not platelets or RBCs)
-Class 2: found on macrophages and B lymphocytes.

4

What are the first and second line non specific immune responses?

-Skin and mucous
-inflammatory response (vasodilation, capillary leakiness, chemotaxis, phagocytosis)

5

What are opsonins?

Molecules that bind to foreign cells to make them more easily eaten by phagocytic cells

6

What is complement?

A group of immune proteins in blood

7

What happens when complement is activated?

-Membrane Attack Complex Forms
-Inflammatory response increases
-Acts as opsoninizing agent, enhances phagocytosis

8

What are other nonspecific mechanisms of immune response?

IFN a fibroblasts and IFN b leukocytes which both inhibit viral replication.

9

What do NK cells do?

-Kills non-specifically but requires part of the specific immune response to pull off.

10

What is required for a specific immune response?

-specific recognition of an antigen

11

What is an antibody mediated/humoral immune response?

-Attacks bacteria or extracellular viruses

12

What is a cell mediated immune response?

-Attacks intracellular viruses and cancer cells, which are self cells gone bad.

13

Where are antibodies found?

-The surface of B lymphocytes, where they function as receptors

-solubly circulate in the plasma.

14

What are the 5 types of antibodies?

-IgA
-IgD
-IgE
-IgG
-IgM

15

Describe IgA?

-15% of antibodies
-Found in secretions
-Protect against bacteria on mucus membranes

16

Describe IgD?

-0.2% of antibodies
-Found on surface of B lymphocytes. Help mature B lymphocytes.

17

Describe IgE?

.004%
-only in mammals
-Can trigger very powerful responses.
-Binds mast cells and basophils
-involved in parasitic info, allergens, hypersensitive reactions

18

Describe IgG?

-75%, most abundant.
-can cross placenta to defend fetus
-activates complement
-binds to macrophages.

19

Describe IgM?

-10%
-Acts against A and B RBC antigens.
-Activates complement.

20

What is the sequence of events in an antibody mediated immune response?

-Pathogen enters bearing antigen

-Antibody bearing B-lymphocyte recognizes and binds to antigen

-Macrophages phagocytize antigen and it's MHC is displayed on surface after processing.

-Helper T cell goes after this MHC.

-This releases cytokines, which draw in more T cells and leads to proliferation of B cells.

-Plasma cells are differentiated

-Memory cells are differentiated (remember antigens and lead to response of T cells upon second mee

21

What is the sequence of events in a cell mediated immune response?

???

22

Define immunodeficiency

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23

Discuss B cell deficiencies

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24

Discuss T cell deficiencies

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25

What is DiGeorge syndrome

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26

What is SCIDS

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27

Describe hypersensitivity disorders

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28

What are the four types of hypersensitivity disorders

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29

Describe AIDS

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30

What is required for a successful organ transplant?

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31

Describe Graft- vs Host disease

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