Flashcards in Pulmonary Pathology Deck (24):
What is a restrictive dysfunction?
A volume limitation. Characterized by drop in FEV1
What is an obstructive disease?
Flow limitation. Change in FVC possible.
What does a normal flow volume loop look like?
Upside down ice cream cone.
What does a flow volume loop look like in an obstructive disease? Restrictive?
-Flow near normal, but all volumes decreased
What is included with COPD?
-Chronic Asthma and bronchitis
What s the main cause of COPD?
Symptoms of copd?
-expectoration of mucus
-dyspnea with exertion
-increased thick mucus production
Changes in lung function due to COPD
-increased resistance to airflow
-gas exchange impairments
What are the three pathologies that come with COPD?
-alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency
Describe chronic bronchitis
mucussy cough most days of 3 months of the year for 2 years
Hyperplasia of goblet cells and growth of mucus glands
What happens in emphysema
Tissue destruction of capillary beds and alveolar walls.
Loss of elasticity
Enlargement of airways in terminal bronchioles
Flattening of diaphragm
What happens in alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency
Enzyme that inhibits elastase can't function.
What happens in asthma?
Triggers result in release of inflammatory mediators (histamine) from mast cells, eosinophils, and macrophages.
How is COPD treated?
How does cystic fibrosis impact the lungs?
-Opens to infections
-Structural damage resulting in emphysema
-Can also impact liver, pancreas (where the fibrosis is), GI tract.
What is restrictive lung dysfunction?
A disorder of compliance, either at the lung or chest wall or both.
Decreases tidal volume, increases respiration rate
Makes breathing more difficult than it should be.
How is restrictive lung dysfunction treated?
What are some causes of restrictive lung dysfunction?
-maturational lack of surfactant
-idiopathic pulmonary issues.
What is the most common cause of pulmonary death in the US?
What are some normal mechanisms to prevent airway infection?
-Filtration in airways
What is the leading cause of death from a single agent worldwide?
What is bronchiolar tone and what impacts it?
-State of bronchial smooth muscle contraction or relaxation.
-Depends on adrenergic/cholinergic balance
-Impacted by parasympathetic tim of vagus nerve
-Impacted by sympathetic tim by catecholamines.