Pulmonary Pathology Flashcards Preview

Bioscience 2 > Pulmonary Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pulmonary Pathology Deck (24):
1

What is a restrictive dysfunction?

A volume limitation. Characterized by drop in FEV1

2

What is an obstructive disease?

Flow limitation. Change in FVC possible.

3

What does a normal flow volume loop look like?

Upside down ice cream cone.

4

What does a flow volume loop look like in an obstructive disease? Restrictive?

-Scooped appearance
-Flow near normal, but all volumes decreased

5

What is included with COPD?

-Chronic Asthma and bronchitis
-Pulmonary emphysema

6

What s the main cause of COPD?

-SMOKING

7

Symptoms of copd?

-cough
-expectoration of mucus
-wheezing
-dyspnea with exertion

8

COPD Patholgy

-inflammed airways
-increased thick mucus production
-tissue destruction
-bronchospasm

9

Changes in lung function due to COPD

-increased compliance
-increased resistance to airflow
-air trapping
-gas exchange impairments

10

What are the three pathologies that come with COPD?

-Emphysema
-Chronic bronchitis
-alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency

11

Describe chronic bronchitis

mucussy cough most days of 3 months of the year for 2 years

Hyperplasia of goblet cells and growth of mucus glands



12

What happens in emphysema

Tissue destruction of capillary beds and alveolar walls.

Loss of elasticity

Enlargement of airways in terminal bronchioles

Flattening of diaphragm

13

What happens in alpha-1 anti-trypsin deficiency

Enzyme that inhibits elastase can't function.

14

What happens in asthma?

Triggers result in release of inflammatory mediators (histamine) from mast cells, eosinophils, and macrophages.

15

How is COPD treated?

-Stop smoking
-Meds
-Oxygen Therapy

16

How does cystic fibrosis impact the lungs?

-Opens to infections
-Inflammation
-Structural damage resulting in emphysema

-Can also impact liver, pancreas (where the fibrosis is), GI tract.

17

What is restrictive lung dysfunction?

A disorder of compliance, either at the lung or chest wall or both.

Decreases tidal volume, increases respiration rate

Makes breathing more difficult than it should be.

18

How is restrictive lung dysfunction treated?

-Meds
-airway clearance
-nutrition
-supplemental oxygen

19

What are some causes of restrictive lung dysfunction?

-maturational lack of surfactant
-idiopathic pulmonary issues.
-nutritional issues
-cardio/neuromuscular/musculoskeletal issues

20

What is the most common cause of pulmonary death in the US?

-pneumonia

21

What are some normal mechanisms to prevent airway infection?

-Filtration in airways
-cough
-glottis
-mucociliary blanket
-pulmonary macrophages

22

What is the leading cause of death from a single agent worldwide?

tuberculosis

23

What is bronchiolar tone and what impacts it?

-State of bronchial smooth muscle contraction or relaxation.

-Depends on adrenergic/cholinergic balance

-Impacted by parasympathetic tim of vagus nerve

-Impacted by sympathetic tim by catecholamines.

24

What are the three methods of inhaled delivery?

-metered dose inhaler
-dry powder inhaler
-nebulizer