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Flashcards in Immunology Deck (169)
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1

When would immunosuppression be utilitised?

Patients may be artificially immunosuppressed in the event of an autoimmune disease

2

Describe the properties of the skin as a physical barrier to infection

It is constantly renewed

It has a low pH

It has low oxygen tension

Sebaceous glands secrete hydrophobic oild whick make it hard for pathogens to bind

3

Mucous line all _____ ________ that come into contact with the ___________

Body cavities

Environment

4

Mucous contains many constitutes which can fight potential pathogens, what are these?

  • Secretory IgA
  • Lysozymes
  • Defensins
  • Antimicrobial peptides
  • Lactoferrin - starve invading bacteria of iron

5

What are commensal bacteria?

Bacteria that reside in the body and on epithelial surfaces naturally.

They have a symbiotic relationship with the body and can eradicate most normally infections

They ensure there is no undefended ecological niche

 

6

The components of the immune system can be split into which two categories?

  1. Cells
  2. Humoral immunity (soluble factors)

7

Which 3 main groups of cells are involved in the immune system?

  1. Phagocytes
  2. Lymphocytes
  3. Granular 

8

When a cell is infected with a virus what will it secrete?

Interferons (alpha and beta)

9

The antiviral state inititiated by interferons achieves what?

It down regulates protein synthesis which slows virus production

10

What is an antigen?

An substance able to stimulate an adaptive immune response - it can be protein, carbohydrate, nucleic acid, lipid, metal etc

11

Where are T and B cells formed?

Bone marrow

12

Where do B cells mature?

Bone marrow

13

Where do T cells mature?

Thymus gland

14

In response to an infection B cells will produce what?

Antibodies and memory cells

15

What are the two types of T cell?

Helper T cell (CD4+)

Cytotoxic T cell (CD8+)

16

How does a virus evade the immune system?

It will usually hide within body cells

17

How can cytotoxic T cells discover viruses hiding in body cells?

The host cell constantly samples its cytoplasm and displays proteins on its surface - this is mediated by MHC class 1 proteins

These displayed proteins can "show" cytotoxic T cells which cells are infected

18

How do viruses evade the process of cytoplasm sampling mediated by MHC class I proteins?

They downregulate the production of MHC class I proteins

This reduced cytoplasm sampling

19

How do natural killer (NK) cells retaliate to viruses that downregulate MHC class I production?

NK cells can detect a lack of MHC class I proteins on a cell surface 

They can then attack and destroy such cells

20

How are parastitic works (helminths) attacked by the immune system?

Antibodies and mast cells

21

What is the complement system and where is it produced?

Family of around 30 different proteins produced in the liver

22

How does the complement system function?

When activated, the proteins activate eachother in a cascade fashion 

This involves great amplification and playes a role in inflammation

23

When do monocytes differentitate into macrophages?

When they exit the blood and migrate to peripheral tissues

24

What are Kupffer cells?

Macrophages of the liver

25

What are mesangial cells?

Macrophages of the kidney

26

What are macrophages of the nervous sytem called?

Microglia

27

How can neutrophils be differentiated from macrophages?

Their multi-lobed nucleus

28

What is the role of dendritic cells?

They engulf pathogens, phagoytose and then present antigens on their surface to T cells

29

What are the main functions of neutrophils?

Killing and degredation

30

What are the main functions of macrophages?

Killing, degregation, wound healing, anti-inflammatory and antigen presentation