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Flashcards in Important Directories Deck (26):
1

Every user account is assigned...?

A home directory.

2

The _____ directory is used for global scratch space.

/tmp

3

The /bin and /usr/bin directories contain...?

commonly executed files.

4

the ____ directory contains system config files.

/etc

5

Roots home directory, /root, should not be confused with the...?

filesystem root directory, /.

6

Linux can be used to support many different types of computer systems such as...?

Servers, Development workstations, personal desktop system, etc.

7

In order to standardize the filesystem's directory structure across this varied range of systems, most Linux system employ a...?

Common naming and utilization scheme that makes the systems much easier to use and maintain.

8

Home directory represents a Users...?

"Private" space on the system. (Typically, this is a subdirectory under the /home directory whose name matches the user's login username. (Examples of this, such as /home/alice or /home/hogan) One significant exception to this is the superuser (or root user) whose home directory is usually /root.)

9

For any user, the tilde character (~) represents the ____ of the user's home directory when used as the first character of a file or directory reference.

FQN.

10

Most obvious purpose for a user's home directory is as ...?

private data space, a place where they can store files away from the files of other users.

11

Two different users can give files or directories the same name without...?

conflict, since each is stored in their own space.

12

Keeping each user's space separate from the others makes ...?

security much easier for the users, as well.

13

A user's home directory provides a place to store user-specific...?

Configuration files.
(When Blondie logs in, for example, she may need a different environment than does Prince. Blondie may prefer different screen colors, different command shortcuts, perhaps even a completely different desktop environment than Prince. Local, user-specific configuration files make this possible. Many of these configuration files are created automatically in a default form when a user's account is created, or on first use of a particular system resource.)

14

Users are normally given _____ _____ control over their own home directories, while access to the rest of the system is restricted.

relatively complete.
( Alice, for example, most likely cannot modify or delete any of the configuration files in the /etc directory, even though she may be able to read them. And most likely she cannot read, modify or delete any of the files in the directories of other users of the system.)

15

When a user first logs into the system, they are placed...?

in their home directory, that is the system sets their initial working directory as their home directory.

16

In addition to their personal space in their home directories, users are given access to ...?

shared "scratch" space in the /tmp directory ( A program to do data compression might store partial results in /tmp, only placing the final results in the user's home directory when the work was complete.)

17

Linux systems often implement ____ on user accounts to prevent any one user from consuming an unfair proportion of the available space.

quotas.
(The /tmp directory gives all users access to additional space to meet short-term needs without charging the space against their quota. This is especially important since users may not always be aware of how much extra space a service needs, and some services (such as X) cannot run at all if there is no temporary storage space available. This "global" scratch space is available to all processes on the system as well as all users. Files placed in this directory are deleted automatically by the system after a few days.)

18

One of the unique characteristics of a Linux system is...?

its flexibility. (Virtually every aspect of the system can be configured in some fashion by editing a configuration file. These configuration files are normally placed in /etc or a subdirectory of /etc. (for example, the sendmail program, often used for running a mail server, uses configuration files placed in /etc/mail. System startup scripts are found in /etc/rc.d, while network configuration files are found in /etc/sysconfig. Obviously, ordinary users cannot modify the files in /etc (or even read them, in some cases), but system admin spend a lot of their time working with files stored here.)

19

Most system commands are stored as...?

binary files in a machine-readable format. (Commands appropriate for use by ordinary users are usually placed in the /bin or /usr/bin binary directories.)

20

Core utilities like ___, ____, ____, ___, and the _____ ____ _____, without which the system would not be usable, go in /bin.

ls, cd, cp, mv and the vi text editor.

21

Supplementary utilities like ______, _____ ____ ____ and ______ _____ go in /usr/bin, which can be made available to other systems over the network.

Compilers, your web browser and office suite.

22

Think of /bin and /usr/bin as ________ command directories.

unprivileged. Since no special privileges are required to use the commands found in them.

23

Just as /bin and /usr/bin store command files for ordinary users, so also....?

/sbin and /usr/bin store command files for use by the superuser, root. (These include commands for maintenance. These privileged commands are also stored in two separate directories, for the same reasons as for /bin and /usr/bin)

24

Collections of commands and configuration files found in places like /bin or /etc change very little, if at all from day to day. These files tend to be...?

very stable.

25

Some files, change frequently. These include...?

incoming/outgoing email, system logs, news group collections, web sites, ftp file archives, and the like. (These variable content files and directories are usually collected in the /var directory. Placing such files here makes it easier to allocate space for them , and also make it easier to protect the more stable files found elsewhere on the system.)

26

The word _____ is the username of the superuser, that is, the user with supreme authority over the system. It is also the name of that user's home directory, /root. And it is also the term used for the base (top?) of the filesystem's directory tree, the / directory. Normally, the meaning of the term can be gleaned from context, but a phrase such as "root directory" can be ambiguous. Try to anticipate and avoid such confusion in your own communication, and seek clarification if you encounter a use of the word that cannot be resolved from context.

root.