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1. If arterial blood gas shows a PaCO2 less than 35 or greater than 45, the problem is ................. in origin.

2. If arterial blood gas shows a HCO3- of less than 21 or greater than 28, the problem is ............. in origin.

3. What is the normal range of pH?

4. What are the steps taken (mentally when acid-base disturbance is suspected?

5. Name the buffering system inside of cells?:

6. Name the buffering system of the extracellular fluid:

1. respiratory

2. metabolic

3. 7.35-7.45

4. Check arterial blood gas. If less than 7.35, acidosis. If greater than 7.45, alkalosis. Now you need to decide the origin of the problem; either respiratory or metabolic. Check to see which values are out of range, either PaCO2 or HCO3. If PaCO2 is out of range, problem is respiratory. If HCO3 is out of range, problem is metabolic.

5. Phosphate buffering

6. carbonic acid - bicarbonate


1. What are electrolytes comprised of?

2. What is the normal range of Na+?

3. What is the normal range of K+?

4. What is the normal range of Ca2+?

5. What is the normal range of Mg2+?

6. What is the normal range of Cl-?

7. What is the normal range of PO43- (phosphate)?

1. Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, PO43- (phosphate)

2. Sodium (Na+): 135 - 145 mEq/L

3. Potassium (K+): 3.5 - 5 mEq/L

4. Calcium (Ca2+): 9.0 - 10.5 mEq/dL

5. Magnesium (Mg2+): 1.3 - 2.1 mEq/L

6. Chloride (CL-): 98 - 106 mEq/L

7. Phosphate (PO43-): 3.0 - 4.5 mg/dL


1. What are the 2 types of hypovolemia?

1. isotonic (when we lose water and sodium together), and hypertonic aka dehydration (when we lose water, but sodium stays).


1. What is a Left shift?

2. What is a right shift?

3. what is included in a CBC and where is it drawn from?

4. Name 5 different clotting tests:

1. when majority of wbcs are young, immature. Signifies an acute infection or inflammation.

2. when the majority of wbcs are older, mature cells. Indicates possible liver disease, megaloblastic anemias, or cancers.

3. Red blood cell count, red blood cell indicies (mean corpuscular volume, etc.), Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration,wbc count, and wbc differential

4. Platelets, bleeding time, Prothrombin time (INR/PT), Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Fibrinogen


1. What is the name of the long-term Blood glucose test?

2. What are the percentages of glucose for the following categories:
controlled diabetic
poorly controlled diabetic

1. Hemoglobin A1C.

2. 3% - 5%, 7% - 11%, and >11%