Flashcards in Improving Cardiovascular Endurance Deck (63)
Define physical activity
any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that results in energy expenditure
The maximum work capacity of the cardiorespiratory systems is a factor of what?
VO2max which is the maximal amount of oxygen that can be take in and used by the body
The capacity of the neuromuscular system is a factor of what?
the maximum tension that can be developed by the working muscle
Why should the clinician assess the cardiovascular system?
To provide them justification for monitoring or for not monitoring activities during a patient's rehab or providing modifications in the exercise prescription
Along with the state of the cardiorespiratory system what 6 things does physical fitness include?
- Muscle strength
- Muscle endurance
- Muscle power
Define muscle strength
the ability of muscles to exert or resist a force
Define muscle endurance
the ability of the muscle to perform work
Define muscle power
the ability of a muscle to exert a high force at a high speed
the ability to maintain equilibrium when the body is static or moving
the ability to perform functional or powerful movements in opposite directions
the ability to stretch, easily bend, or be pliable
Is physical activity the same as exercise and physical fitness?
What is exercise?
planned, structured and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness
What is physical fitness?
a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity
After discontinuing an endurance training program how long does it take to lose half of the positive effects?
What 5 things can people who maintain or improve their levels of physical activity expect?
- better able to perform ADLs
- less likely to develop pain
- better able to avoid disability
- develop better balance, coordination, and agility, which leads to fall prevention
Physical activity may also decrease the risk of what 7 chronic diseases?
- Coronary heart disease
- Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
- Colon caner
Describe the ethnic differences in physical activity
Elderly African Americans and other ethnic minority populations are less active than white Americans
Physical activity is measured as a ration between what 2 things?
basal metabolic rate (BMR) and the rate required to perform a particular task
What is BMR?
the amount of energy required to sustain the body at rest in a supine position
The ratio between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and the rate required to perform a particular task is measured in what?
metabolic equivalents (METs)
What is cardiorespiratory endurance?
the ability to perform whole body activities for extended periods of time without unwarranted fatigue
What are the adaptations that occur within the circulatory system in response to exercise?
- Cardiac output (CO)
- Stroke volume (SV)
- Heart rate (HR)
- Blood flow
- Blood pressure (BP)
- Oxygen consumption
- Hemoglobin concentration
- Fat and carbohydrates
- Lung changes that occur due to exercise
What happens to HR in response to exercise?
it increases with exercise
What happens to stroke volume in response to exercise?
The amount of blood pumped out by the left ventricle of the heart with each beat increases
What happens to cardiac output in response to exercise?
The amount of blood discharged by each ventricle per minute increases
What happens to blood flow in response to exercise?
The amount of blood flowing to the various organs increases during exercise, but it is increased to active skeletal muscle and decreased to nonessential organs
What happens to blood pressure in response to exercise?
Systolic BP increases in proportion to oxygen consumption and cardiac output, but diastolic shows no significant change
What happens to oxygen consumption in response to exercise?
It rises rapidly during the first minutes of exercise and levels off as the aerobic metabolism supplies the energy required by the working muscles
What happens to mitochondria in response to exercise?
There is an increase in size and number of mitochondria with exercise
What happens to hemoglobin concentration in response to exercise?
Hemoglobin concentration in the blood does not change, but because endurance training produces an increase in total blood volume, there is a corresponding increase in the amount of hemoglobin to the tissues
What happens to myoglobin concentration in response to exercise?
There is increased myoglobin content in the tissues
What happens to fat and carbohydrate usage in response to exercise?
What happens to the lungs in response to exercise?
There is an increase in the volume of air that can be inspired in a single maximal ventilation
What is the energy required to power muscular activity is derived from?
the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi)
What are the 3 energy systems that contribute to the resynthesis of ATP via ADP rephosphorylation?
- Phosphagen System
- Glycolysis System
- Oxidative System
Describe the phosphagen system
It is an anaerobic process that provides ATP primarily for short-term, high-intensity activities but is active at the start of all exercises regardless of intensity
What is the most immediate reserve for the rephosphorylation of ATP at the onset of skeletal muscle contraction?
Describe the glycolysis system
It is an anaerobic process that involves the breakdown of carbs into pyruvate to produce ATP in which pyruvate is then transformed into lactic acid
Describe the oxidative system
It is an aerobic system that is the primary source of ATP at rest and during low-intensity activities
Which energy system is active during the first 10 seconds of activity?
Which energy system is active during between 10 and 30 seconds of activity?
ATP-PCr plus glycolysis
Which energy system is active during between 30 seconds and 2 minutes of activity?
Which energy system is active during between 10 2 and 3 minutes of activity?
glycolysis plus oxidative system
Which energy system is active during between 10 2 and after 3 minutes of activity?
What are the 2 physiologic factors to recovery?
- Adequacy of the blood supply to the working muscle
- Maintenance of a viable chemical environment
What are the 2 psychological factors to recovery?
What are the anaerobic energy sources of ATP-PCr and lactic acid are replenished by?
the oxidative system
What is excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)?
The extra O2 that is taken and used to replenish the anaerobic energy sources after cessation of the exercise effort
What are the risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
- High BP (>140/90)
- Elevated serum cholesterol
- Lack of regular exercise
- Family history of C/V disease
What can happen if you exercise a patient at a level which is too high?
It can cause the cardiorespiratory system to work anaerobically
Initially you should exercise a patient at what percentage of their maximum HR?
A systolic BP of greater than what indicates exercise intolerance?
A diastolic BP of greater than what indicates exercise intolerance?
A drop in systolic BP of greater than __ mmHg is indicative of exercise intolerance
An increase in HR greater than __ beats per minute is indicative of exercise intolerance
What is the FITT principle?
The training factors to consider with continuous training:
In order to see improvements in cardiorespiratory endurance, what is the frequency in which a person should exercise?
no less than 3 sessions per week
For aerobic activities, the exercise activity should be at a level that is __-__% of VO2max or __-__% of maximal HR
40-85% of VO2max
55-90% of maximal HR
In order to improve/maintain cardiorespiratory endurance what type of activity must the exercise program employ?
activity must be aerobic, involving large muscle groups activated in a repetitive and rhythmic manner. Such as Treadmill, elliptical, ARC trainer, ergometers, or free weights and elastic resistance of low intensity and high reps
For minimal improvement of cardiorespiratory endurance to occur, how long must the patient participate in continuous activity?
_-_ minutes per day provides a training effect in poorly conditioned people
3 to 5 minutes