Patient-Client Management Flashcards Preview

631: Clinical Management of the Musculoskeletal System I > Patient-Client Management > Flashcards

Flashcards in Patient-Client Management Deck (77):
1

What does examination refer to?

the gathering of information from the chart, other caregivers, the patient, the patient’s family, caretakers, and friends

2

What does evaluation refer to?

the level of judgment necessary to make sense of the findings in order to identify a relationship between the symptoms reported and the signs of disturbed function

3

What does the strength of an examination rely on?

The accuracy of the findings of the testing procedures

4

What are the 2 main categories of diagnostic tests?

- tests that result in a discrete outcome (present/absent, disease/not disease, mild/moderate/severe, etc.)
- tests that result in a continuous outcome (data on interval or a scale of measurement such as degrees of range of motion)

5

What are 3 characteristics that deem a test useful?

- Reliability
- Validity
- Significance

6

When is a test considered reliable?

if it produces precise, accurate, and reproducible information

7

When is a test considered valid?

Determined upon the degree to which it measures what it purports to be measuring, and how well it correctly classifies individuals with or without a particular disease

8

When is a test considered significant?

When the test can describe the probability of something happening

9

What are the 2 categories in which examination tools can be divided?

- Performance-based or self-report measures
- Generic or disease-specific measures

10

What do performance-based measures involve?

The clinician’s performance of the test or observation of the patient’s performance

11

What are some examples of performance-based measures?

special tests, balance tests, etc.

12

What do self-report measures involve?

The patient’s rating his/her performance during activities

13

What are disease-specific measures?

Questionnaires that concentrate on a region of primary interest that is generally relevant to the patient & clinician (focuses on populations, symptoms, function)

14

What are the 3 components of the examination process?

- Patient history
- Systems review
- Tests and measures

15

If a patient's pain has a recent onset what is likely the source of pain

inflammation

16

If a patient's pain has am insidious or gradual onset what is likely the source of pain

predisposing factors such as changes in ADLs, exercise, etc.

17

Mechanical pain is thought to be the result of what?

sustained deformation of collagen

18

How can you determine if pan is chemical in nature?

it is less affected by movement/position

19

What are the 4 major sources of referred pain?

- Neurogenic
- Vasculogenic
- Viscerogenic
- Spondylogenic

20

3 are the characteristics that an irritable structure had?

- a progressive increase in the severity of pain with movement or specific posture
- symptoms increased with minimal activity
- increased latent response of symptoms

21

What are the 3 stages of healing and their associated timelines?

- Acute present for 7-10 days
- Subacute present for 10 days to several weeks
- Chronic present for more than several weeks

22

Why do prolonged symptoms usually indicate a poorer prognosis?

It may indicate the presence of chronic pain syndrome

23

Musculoskeletal conditions are typically aggravated with _____ and ______ with rest

movement

alleviated

24

Stimulation of the cutaneous A-delta fibers leads to what type of pain?

pricking

25

Stimulation of the cutaneous C fibers leads to what type of pain?

burning or dull pain

26

What are the 7 behavioral indicators that suggest motivational-affective pain?

MADISON

- Multiple complaints
- Authenticity claims in an attempt to convince the clinician that the symptoms are present
- Denial of the negative effect the pain is having on function
- Interpersonal variability (different complaints to different staff)
- Singularity of symptoms (special consideration requested by patient)
- The clinician is singled out and patient is dependent upon them
- Nothing works

27

Imaging tests have a ___ sensitivity but a ____ specificity, so they are used in clinical decision-making but should not be used in isolation

high

low

28

Structural deformities are present at ____.

rest

29

Functional deformities are a result of what?

postures and disappear when posture is changed

30

What is normal body temperature?

96.5F-99.4F

31

What is normal respiratory rate?

8-14 breaths per minute

32

Who developed the scanning examination?

Cyriax

33

What are the 3 purposes of the scanning exam?

to help rule out the possibility of symptom referral from other areas, to ensure that all possible causes of the symptoms are examined, and to ensure a correct diagnosis

34

Shoulder abduction tests which spinal root level?

C5

35

Elbow flexion and wrist extension tests which spinal root level?

C6

36

Elbow extension and wrist flexion tests which spinal root level?

C7

37

Finger flexion tests which spinal root level?

C8

38

Finger abduction tests which spinal root level?

T1

39

Hip flexion tests which spinal root levels?

L1-L2

40

Knee extension tests which spinal root levels?

L2-L4

41

Hamstrings tests which spinal root levels?

L4-S3

42

Dorsiflexion with inversion tests which spinal root level?

L4

43

Great toe extension tests which spinal root level?

L5

44

Plantarflexion with eversion tests which spinal root level?

S1

45

Hip extension tests which spinal root levels?

L5-S2

46

Which movements should be tested last?

Those that are known or suspected to cause pain are performed last

47

What is a joint's capsular pattern of restriction?

a limitation of pain and movement in a joint-specific ratio, which is usually present with arthritis, or following prolonged immobilization

48

What is the GH joint capsular pattern of restriction?

ER > abduction > IR

49

What is the humeroulnar joint capsular pattern of restriction?

flexion > extension

50

What is the hip joint capsular pattern of restriction?

IR > flexion > abduction

51

What occurs at the zygapophyseal (facet) joints during flexion?

They glide superiorly (open)

52

What occurs at the zygapophyseal (facet) joints during extension?

They glide inferiorly (close)

53

Who introduced the concept of the end-feel?

Cyriax

54

If AROM and PROM are limited or painful in the same direction what tissue is affected?

inert tissue

55

If AROM and PROM are limited or painful in the opposite direction what tissue is affected?

contractile tissue

56

If a muscle contraction is weak and painless what is affected?

There is palsy or complete rupture of musculotendinous unit

57

If a muscle contraction is weak and painful what is affected?

minor to serious pathology such as muscle tear or inflammation

58

If a muscle contraction is strong and painful what is the problem?

grade I contractile lesion

59

Pain that does not occur during the test, but occurs upon the release of the contraction is thought to have an ______ source

articular

60

What is passive insufficiency?

the point at which a muscle is not capable of generating its maximum force because it is stretched too far

61

What is defined as the ability to demonstrate the skillful and efficient assumption, maintenance, modification, and control of voluntary postures and movement patterns

Motor Function

62

What are the criteria for simple motor patterns?

That the movement is...
- performed exactly in the desired position
- smooth and of a constant speed
- follows the shortest and most efficient path
- performed in its full range

63

What are the criteria for complex motor patterns?

- Synchronization between the primary movers in the distal and proximal regions
- Smooth propagation of motion from one region of the body to another
- absence of inefficient movement patterns or muscle recruitment
- optimal relationships between the speed of motion initiated in one region vs. other regions

64

List some relevant physiological issues

functions of body systems, healing status, energy systems, adaptation and overall fitness level

65

List some relevant biomechanical issues

functional anatomy, direction/planes of motion and stress, kinematics, and kinetics

66

List some relevant motor behavior issues

proprioception, perception, transfer, practice, learning, control, coordination, and performance

67

What are the 2 categories of special tests according to intent?

- Provocative tests
- Clearing tests

68

Describe provocative tests

They are tests that are designed to put pressure on an involved structure and reproduce the symptoms

69

Describe clearing tests

They are tests that can rule out a structure or region as a potential source of the patient’s symptoms

70

Describe pattern recognition

Occurs when the patient conforms to a previously learned pattern of disease

71

Define test validity

The degree to which a test measures what it purports to be measuring. In other words, how well it correctly classifies individuals with or without a particular disease

72

What are the 2 concepts that are directly related to validity?

Sensitivity and Specificity

73

What is sensitivity?

the proportion of patients with a disorder who test positive

74

When sensitivity of a symptom is high, a negative response rules ___ the disorder

out

SnNout

75

What is specificity?

the proportion of patients without the disorder that test negativy

76

When specificity is high, a positive test rules ___ the disorder

in

SpPin

77

What are the goals of the examination?

to identify and define the patient’s problem(s) and design an intervention plan