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Flashcards in Incidental Additives Deck (31)
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1

What are some examples for the control of weeds

herbicides, insecticides, rodenticides, nematocides

2

What are categories of pesticides?

Oragnochloride (fat soluble)
Carbamates (fat soluble)
Organophosphate

3

What are some benefit sof pesticides?

- Reduced food loses
- increase yeild quantity and quality
- food costs are lowered
- incr profit for farmers

4

Disadvantges

- production costs
- health
- environment

5

Location of pesticides in the environment?

Fish/shellfish
grain, nuts, vegetables, fruit
dairy, meat

6

What are the harmful effects of organochlorines?

CNS, GI disorders, headaches, convulsions, paralysis

7

What are the harmful effects of carbamates?

Acetylcholinesterase inhibition

8

What are the harmful effects of Organophosphates?

acetylcholinesterase inhibition, affects CNS--> GI disorders, headaches, convulsions, paralysis

9

What are the characteristics of PCBs?

Most durable organic materials. Components of industrial products, insulators, transformers, plastics

10

What are harmful effects of PCBs?

Believed to cuase GI disorders, organ (liver) damage.
Accumulate in fatty tissue of mammals

11

Chracteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

Prevalent in atmosphere- woodsmoke, autoemissions.
Widespread in foods like bbq, charcoal broiled foods, dairy (cheese), fish, wildlife
Types of food contributed to group of additives depends on quantity of food product consumed - varies place to place

12

What are the adverse effects of PAH?

Similar to PCBs - GI, organ/tissue damage, tumor incidence

13

Characteristics of Antibiotics

Compounds that act to control growth and metabolism of MO

14

Whereare antibiotics produced?

1) Naturally present in food ( aminoglycosides)
2) Produced in food during processing (penicillium, nisin)
3) Administered to food animals either to treat disease or prevent onset

15

What is a problem with antibiotic use?

Antibiotic resistance in humans remain concern

16

What are Mycotoxins? Most common?

Fungal toxins. Aflatoxin best known in improperly dried grains/cereal
- aspergillus flavus/parasiticus destroyed by heat rocessing if present

17

What are the harmful effects of Mycotoxins?

Carcinogenic

18

What are Heavy Metals?

Metals with relatively high densities (5g/ml) and higer atomic numbers
Common examples: known to be harmful : Pb, Cd,As, Hg, Cr, Cd

19

How to Heavy Metals work?

Act by binding to SH groups in various enzymes in inactivate those enzymes - metabolic processes are impaired and this manifests in various disorders

20

What are the harmful effects of heavy metals?

inactivate enzyme and result in various disorders : GI , headache

21

What is Asbestos

Refers to group of silicate minerals.Are durable and inert and insulating properties
Used extensively as filters in brewing industry to exhale yeast cells
Insulation build up materials
Pipes - water transport system

22

Where is asbestos banned?

Canada, UK. Aus, NZ
Not banned in US, Vietnam, Russia

23

What is Asbestos linked to cause?

Cancer

24

What is Radioactive Fallout

Due to radioisotopes produced form nuclear fission. Thus predominant in environment where nuclear accidents testing locations

25

What are the harmful effects of radioisotopes?

Absorbed through the skin (human, animal) to pose radiation hazard - damage to biological molecular (nucleic acid)

26

What is Scombroid toxin?

Commonly found in cold fleshed fish like tuna, mackarel, anchoives
Esepcially in the summer months

27

What produces the scombroid toxin?

BActeria naturally present in species release the enzyme histidine decarboxylase to cause decarboxylation of histidine to form histamine

28

Harmful effects of scombroid toxin

high levels of histamine in fish flesh = rashes, nausea, headaches, GI

29

What is Ciguatera Toxin

Microorganisms (dinoflagellate algae) produce ciguatera toxins in fish of tropical fish species in coral reefs

30

Can you destroy ciguatera toxin with heat?

No, it is fat soluble and not destroyed with cooking