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Flashcards in Individual differences Deck (203)
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What personality characteristics have shown a relationship to academic performance, what is this effect? (in Bratko et al 2006)

Conscientiousness - Major factor in predicting performance, leads to organisation, discipline and motivation

Neuroticism - Conflicting results, students may study harder but perform worse in exams

Extraversion - Conflicting results, may be less worried about the exam and so perform better, but study less hard.


What did Poropat (2009) find about personality and academic performance?

Agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness predicted performance.

Only conscientiousness predicted it independent of intelligence.


What did Csikszentmihalyi and Getzels (1971) find out about creativity?

Major feats of creativity involved solving problems that had not even been conceptualised as problems by others.

Those who spent time considering possibilities (ie. subjects of painting) were rated as higher in originality and aesthetic appeal.


What is the drawing production test?

Psychological test for creativity, given shapes and have to make that into a drawing.

Rated through criteria


What did Dollinger et al (2004) find in their study?

Dollinger et al (2004) found that openness was related to performance on the drawing production test and the thematic apperception test.


What happens in the Thematic Apperception Test?

Participants are given an image and have to produce a story behind it, this is then assessed through criteria.


What did George and Zhou (2001) find in their study?

Difference in Algorithmic tasks (clear way to accomplish task) and Heuristic tasks (vague, open way to complete the problem).

Openness associated with creativity in heuristic tasks

Monitoring associated with lower creativity when monitored by a supervisor, in conscientious people,


Results of the relationship between creativity and authoritarianism?

One study found using the RWA scale that creativity was negatively correlated with authoritarianism (creativity test of divergent thinking- tel-aviv-creativity test).


What is intrinsic motivation in creativity? Sternberg 2006?

The fact that individuals are motivated to achieve according to themselves and their own decisions. Sternberg 2006 said individuals find ways to make their own work more interesting.


What did Mackinnon (1965) discover?

Sorted architects into three groups, ordered from most creative to least. The most creative architects had characteristics of aggression, autonomy and independence.

The architects who were more creative saw the ideal architect as those who were driven by an inner personal artistic vision

Less creative were more concerned with professional standards (common standards within the profession)

It appears the more creative are self accepting and self actualising, they are imaginative


What does the fact that conscientious people who are observed tend to perform less creatively mean?

Further evidence that creativity comes from an expression of self, self actualising, because when pressured to perform under social norms (being observed) perform less well.


What did Gardner (1993) discover? Design?

In a study of 7 highly creative individuals found a theme of marginality - outside of social norms e.g. freud was jewish.


What is the evidence of psychoticism and creativity (argued by Eysenck)?

Stavridou and Furnham (1996) used Wallach-Kogan creativity test, (name all the... alternative use of objects, round things, for example) found correlation between psychoticism and divergent thinking.


Eysenck's argument for psychoticism-Divergent thinking link?

Argues that the creative scientist needs a resilient, self-reliant, dominant, aggressive and self-centred mind to make their ideas triumph over orthodoxy.


Theories as to the different thinking pattern of creative persons?

Lower levels of latent inhibition - lower ability to screen out irrelevant ideas.

increased availability of uncommon or distant associations (ideas out of the ordinary)

Martindale (2007) found 'conceptual-primordial cognition' primordial thinking is regressing to a more primitive mode of thought, ie. more in common with dreaming, which may be more creative.


Barron (1993) suggested what?

Over inclusiveness (i.e. primordial cognition) is not enough to be creativity, need also the ability to focus those ideas.


Freud's basic view of the human mind?

Biological basis for his explanation

Determinism: The extent to which our characters and personalities are determined by preceding events or natural law

Pessimistic view: Life is about avoiding pain

Idiographic approach: looking at individuals


Fechner's ideas that influenced Freud? What is the name that Freud came up for this?

Organisms have 'energies' and they need to be kept in balance - homeostasis

Psychophysics - Freud, organisms try to discharge energy, and this is experienced as pleasure.


What did freud term the 'energy' in the nervous system?



How did Freud view the role of the nervous system in dealing with the instincts or stimuli that reach it?

He viewed the nervous system as having a role in reducing this stimulation.


Freud's architecture of the human mind?

Id: Innate, irrational, biologically gratification orientated (a newborn).

Ego: Learned, rational, reality orientated. Will learn the realistic way to satisfy the demands of the id.

Superego: Moral compass, generated after oedipal complex is resolved.


Freud'd psychosexual stages?

Oral: 0-1.5
Anal: 1.5-3
Phallic: 3-5
Genital: 12-18 Adult sexuality development


Freud's argument for the formation of symptoms according to instincts and desires.

libidinal desires are frustrated, so the pt regresses back to an earlier stage when the desires are satisfied.

The ego however disapproves of this desire as it cannot be satisfied and this leads to feelings of self-loathing

This leads to ambiguity of feeling or mixture of pleasure and disgust.


Freud's defence mechanisms?

Repression - Don't acknowledge at all

Projection - We don't want to acknowledge that we are this way, and so we project that on to others to deal with it

Sublimation - Channel our desires into an output (artists).

Reaction formation - We deny a feeling and act in the opposite direction (woman who couldn't leave her mother)


Freud'd methods for analysis?

1. Dream interpretation - symbols

2. Free associations - Association with words (the first thing that comes into your mind) If a pt hesitates you can see there is come kind of repression?

3. Parapraxes - Freudian slips

4. Idiographic approaches


Freud's Oedipus complex?


In love with mother and jealous of father (rival for mothers affections).

Fears father is going to castrate him.

Conflict is resolved and instead of fearing father, sees him as a role model.


Freud's 'Death Instinct'?

Freud argued that the ultimate goal of life is death - we all die. The ultimate reduction of stimulation is the cessation of stimulation


Freud's therapy goals? His explanation of mechanism?

To replace abnormal unhappiness, with normal unhappiness - to have as much as others. To be capable of enjoyment and work. To understand essentially.

By making the unconscious desires conscious, you can disarm them of harmful content, help the ego conquest the id.


Some evaluation of Freud's psychoanalytic success?

Shedler (2010) success of psychoanalysis is comparable to other techniques.

psychoanalysis also has similar aims to some other therapies, e.g. CBT gains awareness of previously implicit feelings.


What did Bruno Bettelheim argue, referring to psychoanalysis?

Fairy tales embody the ideas of psychoanalysis. The id ego and superego.