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What is declarative (explicit) memory, what is it made up of?

Memory where you can put it into words, pin point what exactly occurred:

Long term: (episodic and semantic)
Short term/working memory


What is episodic memory?

Memory of experiences you have had


What is non-declarative (implicit memory), what is it made up of?

Memory where it cannot be defined:

Conditioning, motor skills, priming


What did Tulving (1972) outline in his fundamental theory of memory?

Different types of memory - episodic and semantic memory.


What did Tulving (1985) outline?

Different memory systems:

Episodic - semantic - procedural

Defined by different levels of consciousness:

Autonoetic - Noetic - Anoetic


What are the examples of evidence for the existence of episodic memory and semantic memory in anterograde amnesic patients?

Spiers et al (2001) reviewed 147 cases with Hippocampal damage - in anterograde amnesic patients found deficits in episodic memory but only minor deficits in semantic memory.


What evidence is there concerning retrograde amnesia and the effect this has on memory?

Tulving (2002) and his patient KC:

Had severe anterograde amnesia and temporally graded retrograde amnesia

Very bad episodic memory, but okay semantic memory


Evidence for different types of memory regarding median temporal lobe damage?

Median temporal lobe is area surrounding (and including) hippocampus. deficits are seen in both semantic and episodic memory in patients with MTL damage

Verfaellie et al (2000)


Evidence for differences in memory for Temporal lobe epilepsy?

Viscontas et al (2000)

Bad episodic memory

Fairly intact semantic memory


Evidence for specific semantic memory loss?

Patient EL - left anterior temporal lobe atrophy

Semantic loss but no episodic loss


What did Prince et al (2007) show through imaging studies about different areas of the brain being used for different types of memory?

Hippocampus activated for episodic

Posterior temporal for semantic

Posterior frontal cortex for both


Difference in familiarity and recollection?

familiarity is a sense of knowing without context (semantic?)

Recollection is remembering contextual details - episodic memory

- More effortful and attention demanding, the hippocampus may play a role


What may Deja vu represent?

A difference between recognition and familiarity


What did Knowlton and Squire (1995) show about recollection and familiarity?

In Jon - a patient with amnesia, he struggled with long term recollection but not with familiarity.


What did Harand et al., (2012) show about hippocampus in episodic memory?

Hippocampus is involved in long-term episodic memories

However episodic that is repeated can become 'semanticised' and the hippocampus is not associated with this.


Evidence of remembering and knowing in OCD?

Obsessional checking itself may cause remembering and knowing to shift - this may exacerbate issues

e.g. after checking lots of times the shift has gone to familiarity rather than remembering (can't remember whether the light is off for example)


What is the proposed role of the hippocampus in 'what and 'where' distinctions of memories?

The hippocampus appears to have a role in binding the two distinctions together - Diana (2007)


What is the evidence (no study) for source memory and hippocampus

Hippocampus damage leads to worse source memory e.g. male or female voice.


How do episodic memory and semantic memory relate?

semantic memory is built up by episodic repetitions of experiences, episodic relies on semantic memory as it allows us to make sense of the meaning of episodes.


What did Moscovitch et al., (2006) show about the role of the hippocampus in semantic memory?

The hippocampus may be involved in the initial encoding of semantic memories. Semantic knowledge is dependent on episodic memory as well.


Evidence for the combination and non-distinction of episodic and semantic memory?

Burianova et al., (2010) evidence for a single neural network containing episodic, semantic and autobiographical memory.


Two types of consolidation?

Synaptic consolidation - structural changes in synaptic connections.

Systemic consolidation - gradual independence from the hippocampus


Evidence for consolidation?

Retrograde amnesia is temporarily graded - dependent on time Bayley et al., (2006)


What is consolidation?

Baddeley et al., 2009: Time-dependent process by which a new memory is gradually woven into the fabric of memory


What are the multiple trace theory/transformation hypotheses in terms of consolidation?

Moscovitch et al (2006) and Winocur et al (2010) suggested that semantic memory does have gradual development and independence from the hippocampus (Sytemic consolidation) but that episodic memory relies on the hippocampus forever.


What evidence is there regarding reconsolidation, what has it shown?

Chan & LaPaglia (2013) showed that re-actovating memories will make them more vulnerable to distortion - make them more malleable.


What are retrieval cues? What types are there?

Information utilised at the time of recall that affects the performance of recall:

Environmental context
Semantic links
State and mood


What is encoding specificity, what evidence is there regarding it?

The fact that memory improves when information available at encoding is also available at recall (Thompson and Tulving 1973)

Same paper provided evidence that semantic context improves performance at recall and recognition


Evidence regarding multiple cues?

Rubin and Wallace (1989) showed that multiple cues improved performance.


Why is it useful that memory is not an exact reproduction of events?

Retain overall meaning rather than trivial details (efficiency)

Utilise past memories to imagine the future Schacter and Addis (2007)