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Flashcards in Individual Differences Deck (10):
1

Describe the Big Five model of personality.

Openness– appreciation for art, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination
Conscientiousness– tendency to show self-discipline, planned rather than spontaneous
Extraversion– energy, positive emotions, and tendency to seek stimulation and company of others
Agreeableness– tendency to be compassionate and cooperate
Neuroticism– tendency to experience negative emotions

2

Define IQ – how is it calculated?

Intelligence quotient
IQ = (mental age/chronological age) x 100 An IQ of 100 is average

3

What are the limitations of IQ?

It averages all the domains of intelligence and doesn’t consider them individually

4

What are the two different types of intelligence?

Crystallised Intelligence – the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current problems
Fluid Intelligence – the ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal experience doesn’t provide a solution

5

How do these types of intelligence change with age?

Crystallised – increases with age
Fluid – shows a pattern of decline

6

Describe the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to IQ.

Genetic factors – ½ to 2/3 of variation in IQ
Environmental factors – 1/3 to ½ of variation in IQ

7

Describe the correlation in the IQ of different pairs of individuals living together and apart that shows that genetics has a relatively larger contribution to IQ.

Unrelated individuals living apart --> unrelated individual living together --> siblings living together --> fraternal twins living together --> identical twins living apart --> identical twins living together

8

Describe Baron Cohen’s empathising/systematising model.

Empathising – ability to infer the thoughts and feelings of others and have an appropriate reaction
Systematising – the drive to analyse and construct any kind of system
i.e. identifying the rules that govern the system in order to predict how the system will behave

9

What are the differences between males and females with regards to this model?

Females – more empathising, less systematising
Males – more systematising, less empathising

10

What type of brain are people with Autism/Aspergus thought tohave?

They are thought to have an extreme male brain
Lots of systematising