Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (23):
The adjustment of individual behaviours, attitudes and beliefs to a group standard
State three factors that affect conformity.
Group size – increases up to a group size of 5 (no increase thereafter)
Presence of a dissenter – one person disagreeing greatly reduces conformity
Culture – greater in collectivistic cultures
Describe the Asch study on conformity and what it showed.
Set a very simple vision test comparing the lengths of lines and put a subject in the room with several actors who all chose the wrong answer
Majority of people conformed when everyone else chose the wrong answer
In the control group, less than 1% conformed
Compliance with commands given by an authority figure
State some factors influencing obedience.
Remoteness of the victim
Closeness and legitimacy of the authority figure
Diffusion of responsibility (obedience increases when someone else takes the blame)
NOT personal characteristics
Describe the Milgram experiment on obedience.
There was one learner and one teacher
They were told that the experiment studied the effect of punishment on memory and they were told to deliver more and more intense shocks as the actor made more and more mistakes
Even though the shock had reached a fatal level when the actor seemed unconscious or even dead, the majority of subjects still obeyed the commands
Define Social Loafing.
The tendency for people to expend less individual effort when working in a group than when working alone
State some factors that make social loafing more likely to occur.
The person believes that the individual performance is not being monitored
The task or the group has less value or meaning to the person
The person generally displays low motivation to strive for success
The person expects that other group members will display high effort
Describe the effects of gender and culture on social loafing.
Social loafing is more likely to occur in:
All male groups
When might social loafing disappear?
Individual performance is being monitored Members highly value their group or the task goal
Define group polarisation.
The tendency for people to make decisions that are more extreme when they are in a group as opposed to a decision made alone or independently
Define group think.
The tendency of group members to suspend critical thinking because they are striving to seek agreement
State some factors that make group think more likely to occur.
Group think is more likely to occur if the group:
is under high stress to reach a decision
is insulated from outside input
has a directive leader
has high cohesiveness
What are the 5 steps of the Bystander effect?
Notice the event
Decide whether it really is an emergency (social comparison – see how others are responding)
Assuming responsibility to intervene (diffusion of responsibility –believe that someone else will help)
Self-efficacy when dealing with the situation
Decision to help (based on cost-benefit analysis)
State some methods of overcoming the Bystander effect.
Reduce restraints on helping
Reduce ambiguity and increase responsibility
Enhance guilt and concern for self-image
Teaching moral inclusion
Modelling helpful behaviour
Attributing helpful behaviour to altruistic motives
Education about barriers to helping
Describe the Bystander effect experiment by Darley and Latane 1968 and describe the results it obtained.
Participants were invited to take part in a discussion about ‘personal problems’ over the radio
An actor in the adjacent room pretended to have a seizure
When by themselves – the majority of participants helped
When in a group of 4 – only around 30% helped
When in a group of more than 4 – hardly anyone helped
Outline the three leadership styles described by Kurt Lewin.
Authoritarian/autocratic style – all decision making done by leader
Democratic/participative – makes decisions after consulting group
Laissez-faire or free reign style – leaves the group entirely to itself
Advantages of Authoritarian/ Autocratic Style
Quick decision making.
Clear hierarchy of responsibility.
Disadvantages of Authoritarian/Autocratic style
Can be demotivating.
Can lead to errors.
Advantages of Democratic style
Can win cooperation and motivate the team.
Can improve quality of decision-making.
Disadvantages of Democratic Style
Can be time-consuming.
Can lead to disagreements
Advantages of Laissez Faire Style
Allows autonomous working.
Allows expertise to be utilised.