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Flashcards in Social Psychology Deck (23):
1

Define conformity.

The adjustment of individual behaviours, attitudes and beliefs to a group standard

2

State three factors that affect conformity.

Group size – increases up to a group size of 5 (no increase thereafter)
Presence of a dissenter – one person disagreeing greatly reduces conformity
Culture – greater in collectivistic cultures

3

Describe the Asch study on conformity and what it showed.

Set a very simple vision test comparing the lengths of lines and put a subject in the room with several actors who all chose the wrong answer
Majority of people conformed when everyone else chose the wrong answer
In the control group, less than 1% conformed

4

Define obedience.

Compliance with commands given by an authority figure

5

State some factors influencing obedience.

Remoteness of the victim
Closeness and legitimacy of the authority figure
Diffusion of responsibility (obedience increases when someone else takes the blame)
NOT personal characteristics

6

Describe the Milgram experiment on obedience.

There was one learner and one teacher
They were told that the experiment studied the effect of punishment on memory and they were told to deliver more and more intense shocks as the actor made more and more mistakes
Even though the shock had reached a fatal level when the actor seemed unconscious or even dead, the majority of subjects still obeyed the commands

7

Define Social Loafing.

The tendency for people to expend less individual effort when working in a group than when working alone

8

State some factors that make social loafing more likely to occur.

The person believes that the individual performance is not being monitored
The task or the group has less value or meaning to the person
The person generally displays low motivation to strive for success
The person expects that other group members will display high effort

9

Describe the effects of gender and culture on social loafing.

Social loafing is more likely to occur in:
 All male groups
 Individualistic cultures

10

When might social loafing disappear?

Individual performance is being monitored Members highly value their group or the task goal

11

Define group polarisation.

The tendency for people to make decisions that are more extreme when they are in a group as opposed to a decision made alone or independently

12

Define group think.

The tendency of group members to suspend critical thinking because they are striving to seek agreement

13

State some factors that make group think more likely to occur.

Group think is more likely to occur if the group:
 is under high stress to reach a decision
 is insulated from outside input
 has a directive leader
 has high cohesiveness

14

What are the 5 steps of the Bystander effect?

Notice the event
Decide whether it really is an emergency (social comparison – see how others are responding)
Assuming responsibility to intervene (diffusion of responsibility –believe that someone else will help)
Self-efficacy when dealing with the situation
Decision to help (based on cost-benefit analysis)

15

State some methods of overcoming the Bystander effect.

Reduce restraints on helping
 Reduce ambiguity and increase responsibility
 Enhance guilt and concern for self-image
Socialise altruism
 Teaching moral inclusion
 Modelling helpful behaviour
 Attributing helpful behaviour to altruistic motives
 Education about barriers to helping

16

Describe the Bystander effect experiment by Darley and Latane 1968 and describe the results it obtained.

Participants were invited to take part in a discussion about ‘personal problems’ over the radio
An actor in the adjacent room pretended to have a seizure
When by themselves – the majority of participants helped
When in a group of 4 – only around 30% helped
When in a group of more than 4 – hardly anyone helped

17

Outline the three leadership styles described by Kurt Lewin.

Authoritarian/autocratic style – all decision making done by leader
Democratic/participative – makes decisions after consulting group
Laissez-faire or free reign style – leaves the group entirely to itself

18

Advantages of Authoritarian/ Autocratic Style

Quick decision making.

Clear hierarchy of responsibility.

19

Disadvantages of Authoritarian/Autocratic style

Can be demotivating.

Can lead to errors.

20

Advantages of Democratic style

Can win cooperation and motivate the team.

Can improve quality of decision-making.

21

Disadvantages of Democratic Style

Can be time-consuming.

Can lead to disagreements

22

Advantages of Laissez Faire Style

Allows autonomous working.

Allows expertise to be utilised.

23

Disadvantages of Laissez Faire Style

Can lead to lack of direction.

Lack of ultimate responsibility holder.