Individual Differences in Cognitive Development Flashcards Preview

Psychology Exam #2 > Individual Differences in Cognitive Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Individual Differences in Cognitive Development Deck (26):

Measuring Intellectual Power: Intelligence Quotient

-defined in terms of a child's mental age and chronological age
-compares a child's performance with other children of the same chronological age
-FORMULA = mental age/chronological age all X 100


Measuring Intellectual Power: Mental Age

-term used by Binet and Simon and Terman in the early calculation of IQ scores to refer to the age level of IQ test items a child could successfully answer
-used in combo w/ chronological age to calculate an IQ score


Measuring Intellectual Power: Stanford-Binet

-created by Terman
-six sets of tests to test cognitive intelligence/ability
-IQ score above 100 for children whose mental age is higher than their chronological age
-IQ score below 100 for children whose mental age is below chronological age
-majority of children score right around 100
-more children with low IQ's than there are children with very high IQ's bc of brain damage and genetic anomalies


Measuring Intellectual Power: WISC-IV Test

-wechsler intelligence scales for children (test III for children b/w 2.5-7 and test IV for 6-16)
-most often used in schools to diagnose learning problems
-consists of 15 tests


Measuring Intellectual Power: WISC-IV Test INDEXES

-verbal comprehension: verbal skills such as knowledge of vocabulary and general info
-perceptual reasoning: block design, picture completion, to test nonverbal visual-processing abilities
-processing: times tests such as symbol search, measure how rapidly an examinee processes info
-working memory: digit span, measures working memory efficiency
-Full scale IQ: the WISC-IV score that takes into account verbal and nonverbal scale scores


Measuring Intellectual Power: Bayley Scales of Infant Development

-the best-known and most widely used test of infant "intelligence"
-measure sensory and moor skills (reaching for a dangling ring, putting blocks in a cup, building a tower of cubes)


Measuring Intellectual Power: Achievement test

-designed to test specific info learned in school, performance is compared to that of other children in the same grade across the country


Measuring Intellectual Power: Competence Vs Performance

-competence: a person's basic, underlying level of skill
-performance: behavior shown by a person under real-life rather than ideal circumstances (what a child has ACTUALLY learned)


Measuring Intellectual Power: Reliability

-the stability of a test score over multiple testing sessions


Measuring Intellectual Power: Validity

-the degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure


Explaining Individual Differences in IQ scores: Twins + Adoption

-identical twins are more like each other w/ IQ scores than fraternal twins
-IQ's of adopted children are better predicted from IQ's of natural parents
-both heredity and environment affect IQ
-children in upper-class homes have 11 point higher IQ's than those in low-income homes


Explaining Individual Differences in IQ scores: Shared Environment

-characteristics of a family that affect all children in the household
-biggest risk in shared environment is (SES) socio-economic status


Explaining Individual Differences in IQ scores: cumulative deficit

-any difference b/w groups in IQ or achievement test scores that becomes larger over time
-the longer a child lives in poverty, the more negative the effect on IQ scores


Explaining Individual Differences in IQ scores: factors that lead to higher IQ scores that increase with age

-an interesting and complex physical environment, parents are emotionally responsive, talking to children often, playing with or interacting with children, encourage/expect children to do well and encourage school achievement


Explaining Individual Differences in IQ scores: non shared environment

-characteristics of a family that affect one child but not the others in the household
-ex. being the oldest is diff than the being the youngest
-older child typically has highest IQ bc they only interact w/ adults


Explaining Individual Differences in IQ scores: Reaction range

-a range within upper and lower boundaries of possible functioning established by one's genes
-in case of IQ scores, reaction range is estimated at 20-25 points
-possible outcomes = phenotypes
-basic genetic patterning = genotype


Explaining Group Differences in IQ or Achievement Test Scores: Ethnic Groups

-caucasian children have 12 higher IQ points than African-Americans (noticeable at the age of 2-3)
-Also may be because of low birth weight of African Americans, and more likely to be poor, differences in prenatal care
-Asians cultural beliefs tend to encourage education more than caucasians or african americans
-minority children do better on the KABC than they do on the Wechsler tests, therefore its used more often in preschools, elementary schools, and clinicians to assess minority children
-asians believe working harder can make you smarter, they actually are smarter
-boys test more as mathematical gifted, have more spatial visualization concepts
-girls more organized and developed in social and language section of brain


Alternative Views of Intelligence: Psychometric Approach

-using IQ tests to define and explain individual and group differences in intelligence
-approach is too narrow, too much emphasis on defining intelligence in terms of correlation b/w IQ tests and school achievement


Alternative Views of Intelligence: Sterberg's triarchic theory of intelligence

-Sternberg developed test Triarchic abilities test to measure the 3 aspects of intelligence
-analytical (componential intelligence) = what is normally measured on the IQ test including planning, organizing, memorizing facts and applying them to new situations
-creative (experiential intelligence) = insightfulness and the ability to see new relationships among new events or experiences
-practical (contextual intelligence) = "street smarts", skill in applying info to the real world or solving practical problems


Alternative Views of Intelligence: Multiple Intelligences

-Howard Gardner proposed 8 types of intelligence
-Linguistic = good writers/speakers, learn languages easily, a lot of knowledge on language
-Logical/mathematical = math skills and able to generate logical solutions to various kinds of problems
-Spatial = used in production/appreciation of works of arts such as painting and sculptures
-Bodily Kinesthetic = professional athletes
-Musical = musicians, singers, composers, conductors
-Interpersonal = those in "helping professions" aka counselors, social workers, ministers
-Intrapersonal = people good at identifying their own strengths and choosing goals accordingly
-Naturalistic = scientists, ability to recognize patterns in nature


Alternative Views of Intelligence: Gardner's Theory

-based on observations of people with brain damage, mental retardation, and other conditions like savant syndrome (a person with a developmental disability demonstrates profound and prodigious capacities or abilities far in excess of what would be considered normal)
-argues that brain damage causes disruption of functioning in specific parts of the brain/mental abilities rather than just a general decline in intelligence
-many mental people are talented
-9th intelligence = existential intelligence = deals w/ spiritual realm and enables us to contemplate the meaning of life


Measuring Intellectual Power: The Flynn Effect

-the tendency of IQ scores to rise over time
-flynn said scores rise as general health, nutrition, and educational opportunities increase
-recent studies show education is more responsible fore this effect than advances in the physical domain


Measuring Intellectual Power: What can IQ scores predict?

-school performance, years of education


Explaining individual difference in IQ scores: how do heredity and environment interact to influence IQ scores?

-concept of reaction range aka heredity determines some range of potential; environment determines the level of performance within that range
-parents intelligence shapes environment they create for their children, influence them both genetically and environmentally


Explaining Group Differences in IQ or Achievement Test Scores: In what ways are home computers and internet access linked to achievement test scores among poor children?

-poor childrens achievement test scores decline as computer/internet access increase in neighborhoods
-hypothesized causes focus on parental monitoring of children's computer activities


Explaining Group Differences in IQ or Achievement Test Scores: how does stereotype threat theory explain ethnic group differences in cognitive test scores?

-proposes that minority test takers are aware of the cultural stereotypes regarding their performance on cognitive tests
-they experience levels of performance anxiety that negatively impact scores
-does not fully explain ethnic group diff in scores