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Psychology Exam #2 > Language Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Language Development Deck (30):

The Prelinguistic Phase: Phonology

-The sound patterns of a particular language and the rules for combining them


The Prelinguistic Phase: Semantics

-a particular language's system of meaning and the rules for conveying meaning


The Prelinguistic Phase: Syntax

-the rules for forming sentences in a particular language


The Prelinguistic Phase: Prelinguistic Phase

-the period before a child speaks his or her first words


The Prelinguistic Phase: Cooing

-making repetitive vowel sounds, esp. the uuuuu sound
-babies are between 1-4 months of age


The Prelinguistic Phase: Babbling

-the repetitive vocalizing of consonant-vowel combinations by an infant
- 6-12 months


The Prelinguistic Phase: Expressive Language

-sounds, signs, or symbols used to communicate meaning


The Prelinguistic Phase: Receptive Language

-comprehension of spoken language


Learning Words and Word Meanings: Word Count

-12-18 months = 30 words
-16-24 months = 50-320 words
-babies as young as 9-12 months can understand simple instructions


Learning Words and Word Meanings: Underextension vs. overextension

-underextension: use of words to apply only to specific objects, ex. a child refers to the use of the word "cup" only to one particular cup
-overextension: inappropriate use of a word to designate an entire category of objects, ex. a child uses the word "kitty" to refer to ALL animate objects


Learning Words and Word Meanings: Constraints

-an assumption that is built-in or learned early ("a default option") by which a child figures out what words refer to
-ex. "doggie" is the dog not the dog running, not the bone its holding, not the brown color of the dog, etc.


Learning Words and Word Meanings: Principle of contrast

-the assumption that every word has a different meaning which leads to a child to assume that 2 or more different words refer to diff objects
-meaning by contrast "bring the chromium tray, not the red one", they don't know chromium but they know red so they bring the other one


The Development of Grammar and Pragmatics: Holophrase

-a combination of a gesture and a single word that conveys more meaning than just the word alone; often seen and heard in children between 12 and 18 months old
-ex. point to daddy's show and say "daddy"


The Development of Grammar and Pragmatics: Telegraphic Speech

-term created by Roger Brown
-describes earliest sentences created by most children, which sound like telegrams bc they include key nouns and verbs but generally omit all other words and grammatical inflections


The Development of Grammar and Pragmatics: overregularization

-young childrens applications of basic rules to irregular words
-ex. "wented, blowed, blockses, teethes"


The Development of Grammar and Pragmatics: Pragmatics

-the rules for the use of language in communicative interaction, such as the rules for taking turns and the style of speech that is appropriate for diff listeners
-children use diff language with adults than friends or those younger than them
-also use language to monitor their own behavior (private speech) and they guide their own behavior (ex. "I put that there")
-as early of age 2, children adapt language to needs of listener and begin to follow culturally specific customs of language like learning or understanding to use passive sentences


Explaining Language Development: Infant Directed Speech (IDS)

-aka motherese
-the simplified and higher-pitched speech that adults use with infants and young children
-babies prefer IDS, regardless of gender
-can determine if the parent is talking to them or another adult
-special tone may help child pick out repeating grammatical forms
-listening to adult conversations without IDS can help kids learn non-object words between 18months and 24 months such as those that refer to colors or quantities


Explaining Language Development: Nativist theories

-argue that much of what the child needs for learning language is built into the organism
-Noam Chomsky
-Slobin = assumes every child is born with a basic language-making capacity, babies are preprogrammed with "rules to look by" and focus on pay attention to the beginnings and endings of strings of sounds and to stressed sounds


Explaining Language Development: constructivist theories

-focus on child's construction of language as a part of cognitive development
-language is constructed at the same time and in the same way as all cognitive understandings


Individual and Group Differences in Language Development: Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)

-average number of meaningful units per sentence
-used by physicians, teachers, and others to identify children who need additional screening to determine whether they have some kind of language disability
-majority of children catch up to peers during early months
-if they struggle to catch up, speech language therapy is often used


Individual and Group Differences in Language Development: Cultural Differences

-prelinguistic phase seems to be present and identical in all language communities, like all babies coo, all babble, all understand language before they can speak it, all cultures baby starts to use first word at 12 months
-english children tend to use more nouns than verbs
-japanese children use these markers much sooner than other kids, pragmatic marker = tells something about the feeling or context of what is being said
-some toddlers exhibit a referential style (focus on labeling objects) while others are more expressive style (concentrate on social and emotional words), style disappears w/ age and has no effect on later language development
-children learning turkish produce sentences during the 2 word stage that differ w/ regard to the use of inflections from those of children learning other languages


Learning to read and write: Phonological awareness

-understanding od the rules governing the sounds of a language as well as knowledge of the connection b/w sounds and the way they are represented in written language
-important in learning to reading and writing


Learning to read and write: english-language learners (ELLs)

-school children who do not speak english well enough to function in english-only classes


Learning to read and write: bilingual education

-school program for students not proficient in english in which instruction in basic subject matter is given in the children's native language during the first 2 or 3 years of schooling, w/ gradual transition to english instruction over the years
-children who are bilingual develop better metalinguistic skills, also show better executive processing skills
-however, bilingual children may reach development milestones later than monolingual children, reading skills develop more slowly in bilingual children


Learning to read and write: structured immersion

-alternative to bilingual ed, used in classrooms in which all children speak the same non-english native language, all basic instruction is in english but is paced so that the children can comprehend, the teacher translates only when necessary


Learning to read and write: english as a second language - (ESL)

-most ELL school children are enrolled in these programs
-alternative to bilingual ed, children not proficient in english attend academic classes taught entirely in english but then spend several hours in a separate class to receive english-language instruction


Learning to read and write: submersion

-approach to the ed. of non-english speaking students i which they are assigned to a classroom where instruction is given in english and are given no supplemental language assistance, also known as the "sink or swim" approach


The Prelinguistic Phase: How does gestural language develop in children who are deaf?

-they develop nonverbal language similar to to hearing infants
-as they acquire sign language, display a sign of babbling similar to vocal babbling of children
-they vocalize
-nonverbal gestures differ from symbolic signs in young children who are deaf and develop similarly to those of hearing children


Learning Words and Word Meanings: How does learning proceed in early and middle childhood?

-children continue to learn new words throughout the preschool years and add approx 10 words a day by the time they are ready to begin elementary school
-fast mapping = the use of categories to learn new words and enables them to acquire words more rapidly


The Development of Grammar and Pragmatics: what is the significance of grammar explosion?

-during grammar explosion, child quickly adds many grammatical inflections and learns to create questions and negative sentences