Flashcards in Indoor Pollution Deck (39):
which is worse: indoor air quality or outdoor?
5 sources of indoor pollution?
VOCs (volatile organic compounds)
PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)
where can you find VOCs?
most used as solvents
paint thinners, varnishes, adhesives, glues, plastic, dyes, inks, particle board, plywood, cosmetics, detergents, drugs, pesticides, tobacco smoke, petroleum fuels
typically small molecules, ubiquitous in indoor settings
4 routes of VOC exposure?
VOC exposure sxs?
bone marrow damage
BIG TAKE AWAY: mostly hematological, nervous and immune system- often are oncogenic
vinyl chloride and PVC
where can you find benzenes outdoors? indoors?
outdoors: volcanoes, forest fires, natural part of crude oil, gasoline, cigarette smoke, refinery emissions, motor vehicle exhaust
indoor: glues, paints, furniture wax, detergents
health effects of VOC exposure?
bone marrow suppression
lower levels of antibodies
characteristics of toluene?
clear, water-insoluble liquid
smell of paint thinner
used in paints, coatings, synthetic fragrances, adhesives, inks, cleaning agents
25x more reactive than benzene!!
where are you exposed to toluene?
highest in indoor air from common household products, cigarette smoke
health effects of toluene?
CNS is the primary target for toxicity
ssxs: fatigue, sleepiness, H/A, nausea, chronic inhalation, developmental effects in children of PG women
characteristics of xylene?
aromatic hydrocarbon aka dimethylbenzene
used in histology labs for tissue processing
occurs naturally in petroleum, cool and wood tar
used as a solvent
how can you be exposed to toluene?
occupational, leaking underground storage tanks, can occur through inhalation, ingestion, eye or skin contact
health effects of toluene exposure?
H/A, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, HEENT irritation, irritation to lungs that can cause chest pain and SOB, liver and KD damage, dermatitis and skin irritation
characteristics of phenol exposure?
white volatile crystalline solid, produced from petroleum, used in conversion to precursors of plastics
includes bisphenol-A, phenolic resins, precursor to many drugs (aspirin, herbicides, oral anesthetic)
toxicity ssxs of phenol exposure?
corrosive to eyes, skin and respiratory tract, dermatitis, lung edema, seizures, coma, toxic via oral exposure
characteristics of formaldehyde?
colorless, highly toxic, flammable, pungent, irritating odor, easily detectable
uses of formaldehyde?
adhesives, glues, dyes
pressed wood products
carpet, particle board, plywood
germicide, embalming fluid
fertilizer and food production
carbon combustion by-product
exposure/health effects of formaldehyde?
primarily respiratory: respiratory and mucous membranes
bronchitis, pulmonary edema, asthma, URT but not LRT
sinonasal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma
health concerns of exposure to PVCs come from what 3 sources?
leeching of phthalates
health concerns and ssxs of vinyl chloride?
dizziness, fatigue, neurasthenia, ataxia
respiratory and mucous membrane irritation
characteristics of polyvinyl chloride?
ubiquitous in industry
cheap, durable, light-weight
can be softened with phthalates
mechanism of toxicity of polyvinyl chloride?
toxic hepatic metabolites
binding to hepatocellular DNA
pro-oncogenic and tumor suppressor action
what is vinyl chloride disease?
scleroderma-like skin changes
characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?
multiple conjoined benzene rings
combustion of carbon-based fuels
two classes of PAHs?
low molecular weight
high molecular weight
describe low molecular weight PAHs?
low molecular weight
ingredient of mothballs
does not linger in environment
produced as by-product of coal processing
describe high molecular weight PAHs? health effects?
by-product of carbon combustion
first carcinogen discovered
most carcinogenic substance in tobacco
also form heterocyclic amines
one of most prevalent carcinogens
known CAs: lungs, prostate, pancreas, stomach, colon, rectum, digestive tract and then prostate and lungs
health effects of low molecular weight PAHs?
heightened concern for people with known anemia conditions
large dose exposure can cause: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hematuria, jaundice, renal failure
how do high molecular weight PAHs cause cancer?
intercalation, inhibits p52 tumor suppression gene
foods to avoid so you don't get PAH exposure?
breads, grains, cereals
what protects you from PAHs?
don't smoke tobacco
don't grill meat
eat other antioxidants
marinade meats before grilling them
what can second hand smoke cause?
lung CA, bronchitis, asthma, SOB, CVS, OM, decreased immune fxn, increased infxn rate
what is a substance that can be measured to assess tobacco exposure?
cotinine- metabolite of nicotine
urine test most common
test for those who are in an environment where exposure is still going on
what is 3rd hand smoke?
chemical deposit into objects that come into contact w/tobacco smoke: furniture, clothing, fabrics, carpet, etc
going outside is not enough, should use a smoking jacket
characteristics of asbestos?
current asbestos risk?
often can be sealed and safely avoided
only if material shows wear does removal of asbestos need to occur
three major health effects of asbestos exposure?
asbestosis (diffuse, dry rales, cyanosis, no fever b/c not infectious process)
mesothelioma (PATHOGONOMIC FOR ASBESTOS EXPOSURE)
lung cancer (mostly adenocarcinoma)