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Flashcards in Indoor Pollution Deck (39):
1

which is worse: indoor air quality or outdoor?

INDOOR

2

5 sources of indoor pollution?

natural gas
VOCs (volatile organic compounds)
PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)
smoke
asbestos

3

where can you find VOCs?

most used as solvents
paint thinners, varnishes, adhesives, glues, plastic, dyes, inks, particle board, plywood, cosmetics, detergents, drugs, pesticides, tobacco smoke, petroleum fuels
typically small molecules, ubiquitous in indoor settings

4

4 routes of VOC exposure?

inhalation
ingestion
absorption

5

VOC exposure sxs?

aplastic anemia
B-cell malignancies
blood dyscrasias
bone marrow damage
CA
leukemia
paresthesias
BIG TAKE AWAY: mostly hematological, nervous and immune system- often are oncogenic

6

6 VOCs?

benzene
toluene
xylene
phenol
formaldehyde
vinyl chloride and PVC

7

where can you find benzenes outdoors? indoors?

outdoors: volcanoes, forest fires, natural part of crude oil, gasoline, cigarette smoke, refinery emissions, motor vehicle exhaust
indoor: glues, paints, furniture wax, detergents

8

health effects of VOC exposure?

bone marrow suppression
anemia
immune suppression
lower levels of antibodies
leukemia

9

characteristics of toluene?

clear, water-insoluble liquid
smell of paint thinner
used in paints, coatings, synthetic fragrances, adhesives, inks, cleaning agents
25x more reactive than benzene!!

10

where are you exposed to toluene?

highest in indoor air from common household products, cigarette smoke

11

health effects of toluene?

CNS is the primary target for toxicity
ssxs: fatigue, sleepiness, H/A, nausea, chronic inhalation, developmental effects in children of PG women

12

characteristics of xylene?

aromatic hydrocarbon aka dimethylbenzene
used in histology labs for tissue processing
colorless
sweet-smelling
occurs naturally in petroleum, cool and wood tar
used as a solvent

13

how can you be exposed to toluene?

occupational, leaking underground storage tanks, can occur through inhalation, ingestion, eye or skin contact

14

health effects of toluene exposure?

H/A, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, HEENT irritation, irritation to lungs that can cause chest pain and SOB, liver and KD damage, dermatitis and skin irritation

15

characteristics of phenol exposure?

white volatile crystalline solid, produced from petroleum, used in conversion to precursors of plastics
includes bisphenol-A, phenolic resins, precursor to many drugs (aspirin, herbicides, oral anesthetic)

16

toxicity ssxs of phenol exposure?

corrosive to eyes, skin and respiratory tract, dermatitis, lung edema, seizures, coma, toxic via oral exposure

17

characteristics of formaldehyde?

colorless, highly toxic, flammable, pungent, irritating odor, easily detectable

18

uses of formaldehyde?

extremely common
adhesives, glues, dyes
pressed wood products
carpet, particle board, plywood
paper
germicide, embalming fluid
fertilizer and food production
wrinkle-free clothing
cosmetics
carbon combustion by-product

19

exposure/health effects of formaldehyde?

primarily respiratory: respiratory and mucous membranes
bronchitis, pulmonary edema, asthma, URT but not LRT
sinonasal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma
leukemia

20

health concerns of exposure to PVCs come from what 3 sources?

off-gassing
leeching of phthalates
combustion products

21

health concerns and ssxs of vinyl chloride?

demyelinating neuro-toxin
dizziness, fatigue, neurasthenia, ataxia
respiratory and mucous membrane irritation
highly hepatotoxic/carcinogenic

22

characteristics of polyvinyl chloride?

ubiquitous in industry
cheap, durable, light-weight
can be softened with phthalates

23

mechanism of toxicity of polyvinyl chloride?

toxic hepatic metabolites
binding to hepatocellular DNA
pro-oncogenic and tumor suppressor action

24

what is vinyl chloride disease?

raynaud's phenomenon
acroosteolysis
scleroderma-like skin changes

25

characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons?

multiple conjoined benzene rings
combustion of carbon-based fuels

26

two classes of PAHs?

low molecular weight
high molecular weight

27

describe low molecular weight PAHs?

2-3 rings
low molecular weight
white solid
flammable
volatile aromatic
ingredient of mothballs
unstable molecule
does not linger in environment
produced as by-product of coal processing
napthalene

28

describe high molecular weight PAHs? health effects?

4-7 rings
by-product of carbon combustion
first carcinogen discovered
most carcinogenic substance in tobacco
charred/grilled food
also form heterocyclic amines
one of most prevalent carcinogens
known CAs: lungs, prostate, pancreas, stomach, colon, rectum, digestive tract and then prostate and lungs

29

health effects of low molecular weight PAHs?

hemolytic anemia
heightened concern for people with known anemia conditions
large dose exposure can cause: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hematuria, jaundice, renal failure
respiratory failure

30

how do high molecular weight PAHs cause cancer?

intercalation, inhibits p52 tumor suppression gene

31

foods to avoid so you don't get PAH exposure?

grilled meats
breads, grains, cereals

32

what protects you from PAHs?

don't smoke tobacco
don't grill meat
eat brassicas
eat other antioxidants
marinade meats before grilling them

33

what can second hand smoke cause?

lung CA, bronchitis, asthma, SOB, CVS, OM, decreased immune fxn, increased infxn rate

34

what is a substance that can be measured to assess tobacco exposure?

cotinine- metabolite of nicotine
urine test most common
test for those who are in an environment where exposure is still going on

35

what is 3rd hand smoke?

chemical deposit into objects that come into contact w/tobacco smoke: furniture, clothing, fabrics, carpet, etc
going outside is not enough, should use a smoking jacket

36

characteristics of asbestos?

naturally occurring
non-flammable
insulation
friction products
tile

37

current asbestos risk?

often can be sealed and safely avoided
only if material shows wear does removal of asbestos need to occur

38

three major health effects of asbestos exposure?

asbestosis (diffuse, dry rales, cyanosis, no fever b/c not infectious process)
mesothelioma (PATHOGONOMIC FOR ASBESTOS EXPOSURE)
lung cancer (mostly adenocarcinoma)

39

mesothelioma ssxs?

dyspnea, SOB
pleuritic pain
cough, wheezing
fatigue
cachexia, hemoptysis