Flashcards in Ways We Are Exposed Deck (50):
what is included in EM? what does it not include?
includes air pollution, heavy metal exposures, toxic chemical exposures
does not include microbiology!!
what is ecology?
the study of relationships between organisms and their environments
what is chemical sensitivity?
not related to histopathological changes
are hyper-sensitive to toxins (canary in a coal mine effect)
are sensitive to one or a few identifiable chemicals
what is the definition of multiple chemical sensitivity?
an environmentally related illness which results in a toxicant-induced loss of tolerance
often no detectable triggers and pt may be allergic to everything
what group of people is more likely to have multiple chemical sensitivity? what comorbidities tend to go along with multiple chemical sensitivities?
85% of the time see in upper SES, caucasian, middle aged females
comorbidities: fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, psychiatric/mental health conditions
6 criteria in order to dx someone with multiple chemical sensitivies?
1. sxs are reproducible w/repeated chemical exposures
2. condition has persisted for significant period of time
3. low levels of exposure result in manifestations of the syndrome
4. sx improve when triggering chemicals are removed
5. responses often occur to multiple chemically unrelated substances
6. sx involve multiple organ systems
four large ways we are exposed to toxins?
main jobs that have a lot of toxin exposure for the employees?
building-related illness (Sick Building Syndrome and Building Related Illness)
what hobbies pose risk for more exposure to toxins?
gun enthusiasts (making bullets)
stained glass (lead)
what is sick building syndrome vs building-related illness?
sick building syndrome: describes a situation where people experience sxs of ill health that seem to be linked to spending time in a building where no specific cause can be identified
building related-illness: recognized diseases being caused by being in said building
ssxs of sick building syndrome?
fatigue, H/A, nausea, EENT irritation, chest tightness, asthma, concentration issues /memory loss
potential contributing factors to sick building syndrome?
chemicals like formaldehyde
recirculation of air
what toxins are agriculturists affected by?
organic and inorganic dusts
what are pilots and flight attendants exposed to in their jobs?
what 2 types of chemist are at most risk for exposure?
esp analytical chemists who may be handling or preparing samples for analysis
maternal occupation as a chemist associated with conotruncal heart and neural tube defects
what are clinicians who are women especially at risk for in regards to pregnancy and their children?
increased risk if a nurse for the development of hydrocephalus and L ventricular outflow tract heart defects
what are dentists exposed to?
mercury- cumulative exposure shows (+) association w/decreased peripheral nerve function
women engineers are at risk of what birth defect with their children?
what are florists exposed to?
what are hair stylists exposed to?
what are mechanics exposed to?
industrial chemicals such as heavy metals in brake fluid, degreasers, detergents, paints, fuels, solvents such as benzene, toluene, xylene, diesel exhaust, and carbon monoxide
what are military personnel exposed to? ssxs? associated with what disorders/diseases?
exposed to many types of chemicals, radiation, air pollution, warfare agents such as agent orange
agent orange exposure can be associated with amyloidosis, B cell leukemia, chloracne, DM 2, hodgkin's dz, ischemic heart disease, multiple myeloma, non-hodgkin's lymphoma, parkinson's dz, peripheral neuropathy, porphyria cutaea tarda, prostate CA, respiratory CAs, soft tissue sarcomas
ssxs: fatigue, H/A, joint pain, indigestion, insomnia, dizziness, respiratory d/os, memory problems
what are miners at risk of being exposed to?
what are toxins painters are exposed to? what can they contain?
cadmium, chromium, manganese, mercury in flake white or cremintz white, naples yellow, chrome yellow, chrome green, cobalt violent
thinners and solvents
what birth defects might a teacher see in her child if a preschool teacher?
increased risk of birth defects such as cataracts and cleft lip w/w/o cleft palate
what are welders exposed to?
iron dust, welding fumes (increased risk of lung CA, SCC)
manganese: fertility problems, parkinsonian sxs, neurobehavioral changes at low levels
what in general, in the home, can cause exposure?
building materials (plastic)
compact fluorescent light bulbs
air conditioners, humidifiers, dehumidifiers
draperies and other window treatments
what do plastic building materials emit?
what is radon?
a noble, radioactive gas that is colorless, odorless and tasteless
what is the make-up of natural gas?
methane + lesser degree carbon dioxide, nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide
what chemical can air fresheners contain?
what chemicals can carpet contain?
retention of pesticide residue
what in the home can contain chemicals/toxins?
plastic containers and plastic wrap
living room items
what can plastic containers and plastic wrap have in them?
bisphenol-A and pthalates
BPA is a xenoestrogen
what is in Teflon cookware?
polytetrafluroethylene or PTFE
bioaccumulation is a concern
what are the major classes of pesticides?
organophosphates (acetylcholinesterase inhibitors)
ssxs of organophosphate poisoining?
fatigue, H/A, brain fog, slow response time, possible muscular weakness
dirty bakers dozen fruits?
sweet bell peppers
clean fifteen fruits and veggies?
4 heavy metals?
cadmium: shrimp, sunflower seeds, seaweed
arsenic: water, shellfish, fish, seaweed
lead: possibly from water, a little from fish
what types of toxins can be in food?
heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, arsenic, lead)
PCBs/OCCs (organochlorine compounds)
PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid, microwave popcorn)
heterocyclic amines (grilling foods)
PAHs (grilling foods)
what are you exposed to with gas appliances? how to prevent exposure?
carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide
prevent exposure by making sure proper venting, service yearly, buy equipment only with national testing agency seal
what type of cleaning products should you avoid?
what could be toxic in the laundry room?
fabric softeners (quaternary ammonium compounds, pthalates, synthetic musks, detrimental respiratory effects)
dry cleaned clothes brought into the home (tetrachloroethylene [PERC])
health effects of tetrachloroethylene exposure?
toxic items in the bathroom?
cosmetic/personal care products: make-up (hydroquinone), hair dye, hair spray, nail polish remover, perfumes
moisture, mold, mildew
toxic items in a bedroom?
kerosene heaters (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide)
dry cleaned goods
living room exposure items?
wood or coal stove