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Flashcards in Industrial Revolution Deck (35)
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1

enclosure movement

The enclosure movement was this: wealthy farmers bought land from small farmers, then benefited from economies of scale in farming huge tracts of land

2

crop rotation


the system of varying successive crops in a definite order on the same ground, especially to avoid depleting the soil and to control weeds, diseases, and pests.

3

industrial revolution

the totality of the changes in economic and social organization that began about 1760 in England and later in other countries, characterized chiefly by the replacement of hand tools with power-driven machines, as the power loom and the steam engine, and by the concentration of industry in large establishments

4

factors of production

economic term that describes the inputs that are used in the production of goods or services in order to make an economic profit

5

mechaniztion

to introduce machinery into (an industry, enterprise, etc.), especially in order to replace manual labor

6

factory system

a manufacturing method for a standardized product or products in which fixed capital, raw material, and labor operations are centralized and sophisticated machinery is often used

7

cottage industry

the production, for sale, of goods at home, as the making of handicrafts by rural families

8

entrepeneur

a person who organizes and manages any enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk

9

tenements

Also called tenement house. a run-down and often overcrowded apartment house, especially in a poor section of a large city

10

mass production

the production or manufacture of goods in large quantities, especially by machinery

11

fordism

modern economic and social systems based on industrialized, standardized mass production and mass consumption

12

corporation

association of individuals, created by law or under authority of law, having a continuous existence independent of the existences of its members, and powers and liabilities distinct from those of its members

13

monopoly

exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market, or a control that makes possible the manipulation of prices

14

strikes

to declare or engage in a suspension of (work) until an employer grants certain demands, such as pay increases, an improved pension plan, etc

15

unions

a number of persons, states, etc., joined or associated together for some common purpose

16

collective

of or characteristic of a group of individuals taken together

17

bargaining

an advantageous purchase, especially one acquired at less than the usual cost

18

eli whitney

1765–1825, U.S. manufacturer and inventor

19

james watt

James, 1736–1819, Scottish engineer and inventor

20

henry bessemer

Sir Henry, 1813–98, English engineer: inventor of the Bessemer process

21

richard arkwright

Sir Richard, 1732–92, English inventor of the spinning jenny

22

robert fulton

Robert, 1765–1815, U.S. engineer and inventor: builder of the first profitable steamboat

23

samuel morse

1761–1826, U.S. geographer and Congregational clergyman (father of Samuel F. B. Morse

24

henry ford

Henry, 1863–1947, U.S. automobile manufacturer

25

JP morgan

1837–1913, U.S. financier and philanthropist

26

immigration

to come to a country of which one is not a native, usually for permanent residence

27

leisure

freedom from the demands of work or duty

28

emigrate

to leave one country or region to settle in another; migrate

29

push and pull factors

those factors which either forcefully push people into migration or attract them

30

textiles

any cloth or goods produced by weaving, knitting, or felting

31

middle class

of, relating to, or characteristic of the middle class; bourgeois

32

jane addam

pioneer American settlement activist/reformer, social worker, public philosopher, sociologist, author, and leader in women's suffrage and world peace

33

stuart mill

was an English philosopher, political economist and civil servant. One of the most influential thinkers in the history of liberalism, he contributed widely to social theory, political theory and political economy

34

utilitarianism

the ethical doctrine that virtue is based on utility, and that conduct should be directed toward promoting the greatest happiness of the greatest number of persons

35

meji restoration

chain of events that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji