Infant and Childhood Development Flashcards Preview

MD1 Endocrine > Infant and Childhood Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infant and Childhood Development Deck (25):
1

When looking at appropriate behaviour, what do you need to consider?

Appropriate for
- Age?
- Context?

2

What is enuresis?

Involuntary urination, especially by child at night

3

Is unproblematic behaviour concerning?

Yes

4

What are developmental tasks?

Tasks at each stage of development = stage salient issues, that must be confronted and mastered

5

What influences future adaptation?

Whether developmental tasks resolved in adaptive/maladaptive way

6

What are the developmental tasks of infancy?

Forming secure attachment with caregiver(s)
Physiological regulation
Learning to
- Sit
- Crawl
- Stand
- Walk
- Grasp
Differentiation of self from environment

7

When does differentiation of self from the environment occur?

18-24 months

8

When is early childhood?

3-5 years

9

What are the developmental tasks of early childhood?

Learning to
- Run
- Climb stairs
- Draw
Toilet training
Self-control and compliance
Functional language
Social play

10

What are the developmental tasks of middle childhood?

Behaviour according to others' rules and expectations
Learning academic skills
Developing interests/skills/competence in other domains
Initiating and maintaining friendships

11

Where do developmental changes in cognition occur?

Language
Knowledge
Memory
Reasoning
Planning

12

Where do developmental changes in sociality occur?

Understanding self
Understanding others
Reasoning about moral dilemmas

13

How does the nature of social interactions change across childhood?

Family to peers

14

Where do developmental changes in emotion occur?

Emotion language
Emotion knowledge
Emotional recognition
Emotion regulation

15

What are complications with mental health in children and adolescents?

Often not self-reported
Same disorder may present differently at different ages

16

What are the risk factors influencing the mental health of children?

Poverty
Harsh/inconsistent parenting
Family violence
Other trauma exposure
Single parent family
Parental mental health

17

What are the protective factors influencing the mental health of children?

Easy temperament
Positive stable relationship with adult other than parents
High intelligence
Positive parenting

18

Is parental distress higher or lower than children's distress?

Same as, or even higher

19

How can inadequate understanding of illness impact adjustment to it?

Increase anxiety
Impact on adherence

20

What can illness interfere with in terms of developmental tasks?

Interfere with their achievement

21

How do infants and toddlers understand illness?

Motor and sensory exploration prominent
Limitations in verbal expression
Struggle with logical explanations
Limited understanding of illness > understand what affects them directly
Non-verbal communication important

22

How do preschoolers understand illness?

Think in literal, concrete, egocentric terms
Developments in independence, curiosity, and language
Illness understood as contagion/contamination

23

How do children in primary school understand illness?

Developments in logical thinking and abstract reasoning
Understand cause of disease beyond contagion
Peers of increasing importance
Simple analogies and hypothetical examples can be understood

24

How do adolescents understand illness?

More advanced reasoning and problem-solving skills
Regulation of emotion and behaviour still developing
Peers and identity formation

25

How do children often communicate: verbally or non-verbally?

Non-verbally