Flashcards in Infant and Childhood Development Deck (25)
When looking at appropriate behaviour, what do you need to consider?
What is enuresis?
Involuntary urination, especially by child at night
Is unproblematic behaviour concerning?
What are developmental tasks?
Tasks at each stage of development = stage salient issues, that must be confronted and mastered
What influences future adaptation?
Whether developmental tasks resolved in adaptive/maladaptive way
What are the developmental tasks of infancy?
Forming secure attachment with caregiver(s)
Differentiation of self from environment
When does differentiation of self from the environment occur?
When is early childhood?
What are the developmental tasks of early childhood?
- Climb stairs
Self-control and compliance
What are the developmental tasks of middle childhood?
Behaviour according to others' rules and expectations
Learning academic skills
Developing interests/skills/competence in other domains
Initiating and maintaining friendships
Where do developmental changes in cognition occur?
Where do developmental changes in sociality occur?
Reasoning about moral dilemmas
How does the nature of social interactions change across childhood?
Family to peers
Where do developmental changes in emotion occur?
What are complications with mental health in children and adolescents?
Often not self-reported
Same disorder may present differently at different ages
What are the risk factors influencing the mental health of children?
Other trauma exposure
Single parent family
Parental mental health
What are the protective factors influencing the mental health of children?
Positive stable relationship with adult other than parents
Is parental distress higher or lower than children's distress?
Same as, or even higher
How can inadequate understanding of illness impact adjustment to it?
Impact on adherence
What can illness interfere with in terms of developmental tasks?
Interfere with their achievement
How do infants and toddlers understand illness?
Motor and sensory exploration prominent
Limitations in verbal expression
Struggle with logical explanations
Limited understanding of illness > understand what affects them directly
Non-verbal communication important
How do preschoolers understand illness?
Think in literal, concrete, egocentric terms
Developments in independence, curiosity, and language
Illness understood as contagion/contamination
How do children in primary school understand illness?
Developments in logical thinking and abstract reasoning
Understand cause of disease beyond contagion
Peers of increasing importance
Simple analogies and hypothetical examples can be understood
How do adolescents understand illness?
More advanced reasoning and problem-solving skills
Regulation of emotion and behaviour still developing
Peers and identity formation