Flashcards in Imaging of the Spine Deck (31):
Why is the clinical history and examination important in imaging?
Decide which imaging is best
What are plain films used for in the spine?
Why do we use MRI in the spine?
Why are the bodies of lumbar vertebrae larger than the others?
Take more weight
What foraminae do cervical vertebrae have that others don't?
What are the costal facets in the thoracic vertebrae for?
Articulation with ribs
What can be accessed via the interlaminar space in the lumbar spine?
Spinal cord via needle
What are the features of the lumbar vertebral body in an A-P plain film?
Thin cortical bone
Pedicles look like hollow cylinders
Spinal canal in centres
When viewed laterally, what is the direction of the x-ray beam to the lumbar vertebral body in an A-P plain film?
Not entirely tangential
- Thick superior cortical margin
- Double line at inferior margin
What direction is the x-ray beam in an oblique plain film of the spine?
Parallel to facet joint
45 degrees to body
What is the pars interarticularis part of?
What is the importance of the pars interarticularis?
Thinnest and weakest part
Gets stress fractures
Which part of the intervertebral disc usually protrudes: anulus fibrosus or nucleus pulposus?
What is the signal of CSF in a T1 MRI?
What is the signal of CSF in a T2 MRI?
Where does the C1 spinal nerve exit?
Above C1 vertebra
Where does the C8 spinal nerve exit?
Below C7 vertebra
What is bright on both T1 and T2 MRIs?
What are the advantages of using MRI in the spine?
What are the disadvantages of using MRI in the spine?
Hard to access
What obscures many structures in the thoracic spine?
Is irregularity in the endplates of the vertebrae normal or abnormal?
Usually normal in younger people
Can be indicator of pathology
Why are disc protrusions more common in the lumbar rather than thoracic spine?
Thoracic spine stabilised by ribs
What are the normal curves of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines?
What is CT useful for in the spine?
Lumbar disc pathology but not as good as MRI
Why can the L4 vertebra slip on L5?
Arthritis of facet joint
Defect in lamina = stress fracture
What is bone scintigraphy?
Injected technetium emits gamma rays > counted by scanner
What takes up technetium?
What does bone scintigraphy assess?
Which areas show increased uptake of technetium in bone scintigraphy?
Bladder because excreted in urine