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Human Disease > Infection control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection control Deck (12)
1

What can Healthcare associated infection (HCAI)'s cause?

• In hospital can impact on patients, families, Trust
• Delay in recovery
• Further investigations
• Further surgery
• Additional treatments
• Death
• Dental patients can be hospital patients

2

What are the most common types of HCAI's?

1. Respiratorytract/Pneumonia(22.8%)
2. Urinarytractinfection(17.2%)
3. Surgical site infection (15.7%)
4. Clinicalsepsis(10.5%)
5. Gastrointestinalinfections(8.8%)
6. Bloodstreaminfection(7.3%)

3

When are soap and water needed rather than hand gel?

When coming into contact with patients with diarrhoea.
Hands must be washed before/after care episodes. After removing gloves. They must be visibly clean.

4

What's the safe handling of sharps?

• Risk assess task • Use sharps trays/bins • Do not remove needles from syringes • Do not re-sheath needles • If you have to re-sheath use one-hand technique or device • Be vigilant during emergency procedures • Wear appropriate protective clothing • Use safer devices where available • Disposal of used sharps = users responsibility

5

What should be done in a sharps/splash incident?

• First aid
• Report incident to Nurse-in-Charge
• Complete Trust Incident Form
• Working hours: Contact Needlestick Contamination Incident Hotline 0117 342 4987
• Out of hours/weekends: UH Bristol Clinical Site Management Team will advise

6

What's the safe handling of specimens?

• Safely contained in a leak-proof container
• Enclosed in another container (plastic bag)
• Request form in side pocket
• Outside container, bag and form kept free from contamination
• Biohazard label if appropriate • Designated collection – not internal post

7

Tips for inserting a peripheral cannulae?

1. Hand wash! Hand wash! Hand wash! 2. Wear gloves & apron for PC insertion & management 3. Practice ANTT/aseptic principles 4. Prep skin & allow to dry 5. Select right size cannula 6. Secure with dressing 7. Take out as soon as possible 8. Ensure accurate documentation

8

How long can bugs survive?

• Gram- tend to persist longer than Gram+ • Gram+ (Enterococcus sp. inc. VRE, Staph. aureus inc. MRSA, Strep pyo. survive
months on dry surfaces • Gram- (Acinetobacter, E.coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas can also survive for months • Bordetella pertussis, Proteus - days • Mycobacteria inc. TB – months • C. diff spores remain viable for up to a year in the environment • Candida albicans (fungal pathogen) – 4 months • Respiratory tract viruses – Influenza, SARS – a few minutes to days • GI tract viruses – Rotavirus/Polio – 2 months • Blood borne viruses – HBV/HCV – more than one week • Herpes viruses – CMV/HSV 1&2 – few hours to 7 days

9

What are the routes of transmission?

• Airborne
• Droplet
• Direct contact
• Indirect contact
• Percutaneous

10

What's the difference between colonisation and infection?

Colonisation: a microbe which establishes and multiplies, in a particular particular environment e.g. body surface, without producing disease or symptoms
Infection: a microbe which establishes and multiplies, in a particular environment e.g. a wound, BUT produces adverse effects

11

What's the norovirus?

• Highly infectious • Approx. 12 – 48 hours incubation • Lasts about 48 hours • Sudden onset of diarrhoea and/or vomiting) • Staff/patients/relatives at risk • Main reason why Wards get closed • Symptoms of unexplained D&V? Go home • Back to work 48 hours after last symptom

12

What's MRSA?

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans.
• MRSA may be resistant to common antibiotics but not more pathogenic than Staph.aureus
• Not normally found in oral cavity
• Occasionally isolated from oral infections
• Topical treatments