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1st Semester Nursing > Infection Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infection Control Deck (18):

Direct Contact Transmission

Person-to-Person or person-to-source
(feces to mouth or contaminated food)


Indirect Contact Transmission

Contaminated inanimate object to person
(Sharps, dressings)


Droplet Transmission

Large Particles
Travel up to 3 feet
(Coughing, sneezing, talking)


Airborne Transmission

Droplet nuclei/residue or evaporated droplets suspended in air
(As a result of coughing, sneezing or coughing)


Vehicle Transmission

Contaminated Items
Water, Food
Blood, Water, Drugs


Vector Transmission

Via insects
-can be external mechanical (flies) or internal (parasites like mosquitos, ticks, etc).


Before hand washing, inspect hands for...

... breaks/cuts in skin or cuticles
-short nails
-visible soiling


Hand antisepsis using alcohol-based waterless rub

Push back sleeves and wristwatch
Rub antiseptic on hands until dry (if dry within 10-15 econds, likely not enough!) By


Handwashing technique with soap

Don’t let hands or uniform touch sink
Once water is on, don’t let water splash on uniform
Warm water, hands and wrists
3mL to 5mL soap
15-20 seconds or “Happy Birthday” twice
Rub palms with back of hands in circles at least 5 times each
Fingertips down, elbows up
Dry hands from fingers UP


Standard Precautions

Use with all patients
-applies to blood, fluids, excretions (not sweat), nonintact skin, and mucous membranes, + contaminated surfaces/items

-Hand hygiene before/between/after patient contact
-also, after contact with fluids, surfaces in pt’s room, immediately after glove removal
-when hands are soiled - soap/water (when not, alcohol-based rub)
-if potential spore-contact, use antimicrobial soap

Private room not necessary unless poor hygiene situation - wound drainage, uncontained secretions
Sharps in sharps container (don’t cap needles if not automatic)

Pts to cover nose/mouth when coughing or sneezing, use tissues for respiratory secretions, hand hygiene after.
Contain resp secretions with mask. Sit at least 3ft away.


Airborne Precautions - Diseases

Droplet nuclei smaller than 5 microns
Measles, Chickenpox, Pulm. or Laryngeal Tuberculosis, Disseminated varicella-zoster


Airborne Precautions - Protections

Private Room
Neg-pressure airflow of 6-12 exchanges/hr via HEPA filtration
Mask or n95 respirator if condition warrants


Droplet Precautions - Diseases/Conditions

Droplets larger than 5 microns; being within 3 ft of pt.

B. Pertussis
N. Meningitides
Group A Strep (until first 24 hrs of antimicrobial therapy)


Droplet Precautions - Protection

Private Room (or cohort pts)
Mask or respirator (depending on condition)


Contact Precautions - Diseases/Conditions

Direct patient Contact or environmental contact

Infection/Colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms
-C. Diff, Shigella, enteric pathogens
-Major Wound Infections
-Herpes Simplex, Scabies, Varicella Zoster (disseminated)
-RSV in infants, young kids, immunocompromised adults


Contact Precautions - Protections

Private Room or Cohort Pts
Gloves, Gowns


Protective Environment - Conditions/Diseases

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants


Protective Environment - Protections

Private Room
Positive Pressure airflow with 12+ exchanges per hour
HEPA filtration for incoming air
Mask worn by PT when out of room