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Flashcards in Infections Deck (22)
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1

What bacteria is responsible for the majority of GIT infections in the UK?

Campylobacter jejuni

 

Causes self-limiting diarrhoea

2

For which type of fungal infections is Voriconazole used?

When in the CNS --> due to the drugs ability to permeate the CNS

 

Can cause visual disturbances

3

What is oral thrush caused by?

Candida albicans

 

Treated with anti-fungals

4

What is endocarditis?

Infection of the heart valves as a biofilm

 

Normally diagnosed by an electrocardiograph

5

What is TSST?

Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin

 

This is caused by S.aureus

6

Was are the made drug-drug interactions that occur with triazoles?

CYP450 interactions

7

What is Griseofulvin?

An anti-fungal effective against dermatophytes

 

Narrow therapeutic range

 

Pregnancy must be avoided, and also in pregnant women

8

What are Pharyngitis, Tonsillitis and Conjunctivitis?

Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis - Oral Penicillin

 

Conjunctivitis - Topical Chloramphenical

9

Define Virulence

The scale of the intensity of a disease

10

What are the 3 different types of gangrene?

Dry - Impaired blood supply without infection

 

Wet - Impaired blood supply with a bacterial infection (S.auerus/S.pyogenes)

 

Gas - A deadly bacterial infection caused by clodistridium perfingens

11

Who are the most likely to suffer with severe fungal infections?

Immunocompromised patients

 

People with central IV catheters

 

Those on long courses of corticosteroids

12

Define the following words....

 

Mycosis

 

Disseminated

 

Fungaemia

Mycosis - A fungal infection

 

Disseminated - When the infection has spread from the initial location

 

Fungaemia - When a fungus is found in the blood

13

What is the difference between primary and secondary infections?

Primary - The initial infection within a patient (eg, a UTI)

 

Secondary - Infections that follow a primary infection (eg, septicaemia)

14

What is typhoid fever?

Systemic infection of Salmonella enterica

15

What drugs are usually used as first line treatments over amphoterocin B?

Lipid formulation amphoterocin

 

Ambisome and Abelcet

16

What are 4 different types of infection that can occur due to E.coli?

Enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) - This is the most common, with bloody diarrhoea caused by toxins damaging the intestine

 

Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) - Known as travellers diarrhoea

 

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) - Causes severe and persistant diarrhoea --> produces no toxins

 

Enteroinvasive (EIEC) - E.coli invades the intestinal walls, killing the cells --> resulting in blood diarrhoea (mainly in areas of poor hygiene)

17

What are the 3 stages of diagnostic certainty when dealing with fungi?

Possible

 

Probable --> clincial and mycological evidence (eg, AIDS and a +ve sputum sample)

 

Proven --> fungal cause grown

18

What is Amphoterocin?

Binds to ergosterol in fungi membrane --> increasing permeability

 

It is amphoteric!!

 

Broad spectrum

 

High toxicity, so monitoring needed

19

Name 2 types of fungi that cause pulmonary infections, most commonly in HIV/AIDS patients

Cryptococcus

 

Histoplasma

20

How are upper urinary tract infections usually caused?

Normally from E.coli moving up from the lower urinary tract

21

What is the difference between Aspergillosis and Aspergilloma?

Aspergillosis - Infection of Aspergillus, usually in the lungs

ABPA - Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis

 

Aspergilloma - A growth of a fungal ball in a pre-exisiting cavity

This is saprophytic (feeds on dead/decaying matter) so usually follows a previous infection like TB

22

What is Flucytosine?

A nucleoside analogue (pyrimidine)

 

Can be very toxic, so plasma levels need to be taken

 

Resistance is a problem if only used on its own