What bacteria is responsible for the majority of GIT infections in the UK?
Causes self-limiting diarrhoea
For which type of fungal infections is Voriconazole used?
When in the CNS --> due to the drugs ability to permeate the CNS
Can cause visual disturbances
What is oral thrush caused by?
Treated with anti-fungals
What is endocarditis?
Infection of the heart valves as a biofilm
Normally diagnosed by an electrocardiograph
What is TSST?
Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin
This is caused by S.aureus
Was are the made drug-drug interactions that occur with triazoles?
What is Griseofulvin?
An anti-fungal effective against dermatophytes
Narrow therapeutic range
Pregnancy must be avoided, and also in pregnant women
What are Pharyngitis, Tonsillitis and Conjunctivitis?
Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis - Oral Penicillin
Conjunctivitis - Topical Chloramphenical
The scale of the intensity of a disease
What are the 3 different types of gangrene?
Dry - Impaired blood supply without infection
Wet - Impaired blood supply with a bacterial infection (S.auerus/S.pyogenes)
Gas - A deadly bacterial infection caused by clodistridium perfingens
Who are the most likely to suffer with severe fungal infections?
People with central IV catheters
Those on long courses of corticosteroids
Define the following words....
Mycosis - A fungal infection
Disseminated - When the infection has spread from the initial location
Fungaemia - When a fungus is found in the blood
What is the difference between primary and secondary infections?
Primary - The initial infection within a patient (eg, a UTI)
Secondary - Infections that follow a primary infection (eg, septicaemia)
What is typhoid fever?
Systemic infection of Salmonella enterica
What drugs are usually used as first line treatments over amphoterocin B?
Lipid formulation amphoterocin
Ambisome and Abelcet
What are 4 different types of infection that can occur due to E.coli?
Enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) - This is the most common, with bloody diarrhoea caused by toxins damaging the intestine
Enterotoxigenic (ETEC) - Known as travellers diarrhoea
Enteropathogenic (EPEC) - Causes severe and persistant diarrhoea --> produces no toxins
Enteroinvasive (EIEC) - E.coli invades the intestinal walls, killing the cells --> resulting in blood diarrhoea (mainly in areas of poor hygiene)
What are the 3 stages of diagnostic certainty when dealing with fungi?
Probable --> clincial and mycological evidence (eg, AIDS and a +ve sputum sample)
Proven --> fungal cause grown
What is Amphoterocin?
Binds to ergosterol in fungi membrane --> increasing permeability
It is amphoteric!!
High toxicity, so monitoring needed
Name 2 types of fungi that cause pulmonary infections, most commonly in HIV/AIDS patients
How are upper urinary tract infections usually caused?
Normally from E.coli moving up from the lower urinary tract
What is the difference between Aspergillosis and Aspergilloma?
Aspergillosis - Infection of Aspergillus, usually in the lungs
ABPA - Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
Aspergilloma - A growth of a fungal ball in a pre-exisiting cavity
This is saprophytic (feeds on dead/decaying matter) so usually follows a previous infection like TB
What is Flucytosine?
A nucleoside analogue (pyrimidine)
Can be very toxic, so plasma levels need to be taken
Resistance is a problem if only used on its own