Infections of the Genito-Urinary Tract Flashcards Preview

Renal and Genito-Urinary System > Infections of the Genito-Urinary Tract > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infections of the Genito-Urinary Tract Deck (14)
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1

Why are females more vulnerable to infection with fecal bacteria?

- The urethra is shorter and nearer to the anus

- Due to the nature of intercourse

2

What is urethritis?
What is cystitis?
What is dysuria?
What is pyuria?
What is Pyelonephritis?

- Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra

- Cystitis in inflammation of the bladder

- Dysuria is painful urination

- Pyuria is urine that contained pus

- Pyelonephritis is kidney infection, characterised by fever and back pain

3

Most common UTI bacterias (three)

E.coli - gram negative rod

Proteus mirabilis - Gram negative pleomorphic rod - swarming motility

Staphylococcus saprophyticus - gram positive coccus

4

What is E.coli?

- E.coli is a gram-negative motile bacillus.

- Also causes GI-infections, but UTIs commonly caused by specific strains of E.coli known as UPEC.

- UPEC possesses potent adhesins for attachment to epithelium

5

In terms of UPEC Pilus adhesins, what is a type I pili and P-fimbriae?

Type I pili: Binds mannose receptors, common on glycoproteins in uroeputhelium

P-fimbriae: Binds to globobiose

6

What is Staphylococcus Saptophyticus?

- Gram positive - cocci
- Haemagglutinin key to attachment to cells
- Common cause of UTIs in young women
- Coagulase negative
- Nobobiocin resistant
- Most common in young women

7

How do we treat symptoms of UTI in the community? (dysuria etc...)

- Swift antibiotic treatment to prevent complications of kidney infection

- 3-day course in women, 7 day in men
- Common antibiotics include Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, Penicillins and trimethoprim

8

How do we treat symptoms of UTI in the hospital?

- Similar to community but may require IV antibiotics
- Removal and changing of catheter and bag
- Resistant E.coli infections now treated with Plazomicin in USA - expected to come to UK soon.

9

How are UTIs transmitted?

Any form of sexual activity in which no barrier is used and exchange of fluid or contact with mucosal epithelium

10

Main organisms for:
1.) Gonorrhoea
2.) Chlamydia
3.) Syphilis

1.) Neisseria Gonnorhoea
2.) Chlamydia trachomatis
3.) Treponema Pallidum

11

N. gonorrhoeae pathogenesis (factors and components)

- Surface pili for attachment

- Opa proteins aid attachment

- Por proteins - nucleate actin aiding cell invasion

- Possesses IgA protease - aids survival inside host cells.

- If released into bloodstream - can disseminate infection to other sites fever, arthritis

- Co infection of HIV and N. gonorrhoea increases transmission of HIV by 500%

12

How is syphilis transmitted?

Syphilis is transmitted by sexual contact via minute skin abrasions

- Vertical transmission - cross placental: Congenital syphilis

13

Why is congenital syphilis significant?

Congenital syphilis can lead to still birth, birth deformities, silent infection (presents as facial and tooth deformities at 2 years)

14

Complications of chlamydia infection in Women

Asymptomatic infection in 70% of women.
Urethral infection

- Pelvic inflammatory disease 40% - ascending infection involving uterus, fallopian tubes, and other pelvic structures.