Flashcards in Infections of the Genito-Urinary Tract Deck (14)
Why are females more vulnerable to infection with fecal bacteria?
- The urethra is shorter and nearer to the anus
- Due to the nature of intercourse
What is urethritis?
What is cystitis?
What is dysuria?
What is pyuria?
What is Pyelonephritis?
- Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra
- Cystitis in inflammation of the bladder
- Dysuria is painful urination
- Pyuria is urine that contained pus
- Pyelonephritis is kidney infection, characterised by fever and back pain
Most common UTI bacterias (three)
E.coli - gram negative rod
Proteus mirabilis - Gram negative pleomorphic rod - swarming motility
Staphylococcus saprophyticus - gram positive coccus
What is E.coli?
- E.coli is a gram-negative motile bacillus.
- Also causes GI-infections, but UTIs commonly caused by specific strains of E.coli known as UPEC.
- UPEC possesses potent adhesins for attachment to epithelium
In terms of UPEC Pilus adhesins, what is a type I pili and P-fimbriae?
Type I pili: Binds mannose receptors, common on glycoproteins in uroeputhelium
P-fimbriae: Binds to globobiose
What is Staphylococcus Saptophyticus?
- Gram positive - cocci
- Haemagglutinin key to attachment to cells
- Common cause of UTIs in young women
- Coagulase negative
- Nobobiocin resistant
- Most common in young women
How do we treat symptoms of UTI in the community? (dysuria etc...)
- Swift antibiotic treatment to prevent complications of kidney infection
- 3-day course in women, 7 day in men
- Common antibiotics include Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin, Penicillins and trimethoprim
How do we treat symptoms of UTI in the hospital?
- Similar to community but may require IV antibiotics
- Removal and changing of catheter and bag
- Resistant E.coli infections now treated with Plazomicin in USA - expected to come to UK soon.
How are UTIs transmitted?
Any form of sexual activity in which no barrier is used and exchange of fluid or contact with mucosal epithelium
Main organisms for:
1.) Neisseria Gonnorhoea
2.) Chlamydia trachomatis
3.) Treponema Pallidum
N. gonorrhoeae pathogenesis (factors and components)
- Surface pili for attachment
- Opa proteins aid attachment
- Por proteins - nucleate actin aiding cell invasion
- Possesses IgA protease - aids survival inside host cells.
- If released into bloodstream - can disseminate infection to other sites fever, arthritis
- Co infection of HIV and N. gonorrhoea increases transmission of HIV by 500%
How is syphilis transmitted?
Syphilis is transmitted by sexual contact via minute skin abrasions
- Vertical transmission - cross placental: Congenital syphilis
Why is congenital syphilis significant?
Congenital syphilis can lead to still birth, birth deformities, silent infection (presents as facial and tooth deformities at 2 years)