Infectious Disease Flashcards Preview

A - Step II Secrets > Infectious Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infectious Disease Deck (131)
Loading flashcards...
1

Specify which bugs are associated with UTIs and what empirical antibiotic should be used while waiting for culture results

Escherichia coli

Treatment: TMP-SMX, nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin, quinolones

2

Specify which bugs are associated with bronchitis and what empirical antibiotic should be used while waiting for culture results

Virus, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella spp.

Treatment: Usually no benefit from antibiotics. May consider macrolides or doxycycline

3

Specify which bugs are associated with pneumonia (classic vs atypical) and what empirical antibiotic should be used while waiting for culture results

Classic: Streptococcus pneumoniae, H. influenzae

  • treatment: Third-generation cephalosporin, azithromycin

Atypical: Mycoplasma, Chlamydia spp.

  • treatment: Macrolide antibiotic, doxycycline

4

Specify which bugs are associated with osteomyelitis and what empirical antibiotic should be used while waiting for culture results

Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp.

Treatment: Oxacillin, cefazolin, vancomycin

5

Specify which bugs are associated with cellulitis and what empirical antibiotic should be used while waiting for culture results

Streptococci, staphylococci

Treatment: Cephalexin or dicloxacillin. TMP-SMX, doxycycline, or clindamycin are often used as first-line agents because of the emergence of MRSA

6

Specify which bugs are associated with meningitis (child) and what empirical antibiotic should be used while waiting for culture results

Streptococci B, E. coli, Listeria spp.

Treatment: Ampicillin + aminoglycoside (usually gentamicin); an expanded spectrum third-generation cephalosporin (cefotaxime) should be added if a gram-negative organism is suspected

7

Specify which bugs are associated with meningitis (child/adult) and what empirical antibiotic should be used while waiting for culture results

S. pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis*

Treatment: Cefotaxime or ceftriaxone + vancomycin

8

Specify which bugs are associated with endocarditis (native vs prosthetic valve) and what empirical antibiotic should be used while waiting for culture results

Endocarditis (native valve) - Staphylococci, streptococci

  • Treatment: antistaphylococcal penicillin (ex: Oxacillin, nafcillin) or vancomycin if allergic to penicillin + aminoglycoside

Endocarditis (prosthetic valve) - Numerous different organisms

  • Treatment: Vancomycin + gentamicin + cefepime or a carbapenem

9

Specify which bugs are associated with sepsis and what empirical antibiotic should be used while waiting for culture results

Gram-negative organisms, streptococci, staphylococci

Treatment: Third-generation penicillin/cephalosporin + aminoglycoside, or imipenem

10

Specify which 3 bugs are associated with septic arthritis and what empirical antibiotics should be used while waiting for culture results

S. aureus -> Vancomycin

Gram negative bacilli -> Ceftazidime or ceftriaxone

Gonococci -> Ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, or spectinomycin

11

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Streptococcus A or B while waiting for culture results

1st line: Penicillin, cefazolin

Alternative(s): Erythromycin

12

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for S. pneumoniae while waiting for culture results

1st line: Third-generation cephalosporin + vancomycin

Alternative(s): Fluoroquinolone

13

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Enterococcus while waiting for culture results

1st line: Penicillin or ampicillin + aminoglycoside

Alternative(s): Vancomycin + aminoglycoside

14

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Staphylococcus aureus while waiting for culture results

1st line: Anti-staphylococcus penicillin (e.g., methicillin)

Alternative(s): Vancomycin, TMP-SMX, doxycycline, clindamycin, or linezolid for MRSA

15

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Gonococcus while waiting for culture results

1st line: Ceftriaxone

Alternative(s): Cefixime or high-dose azithromycin followed by test of cure in 1 week

16

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Meningococcus while waiting for culture results

1st line: Cefotaxime or ceftriaxone

Alternative(s): Chloramphenicol or penicillin G if proven to be penicillin susceptible

17

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Haemophilus while waiting for culture results

1st line: Second- or third-generation cephalosporin

Alternative(s): Amoxicillin

18

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Pseudomonas while waiting for culture results

1st line: Antipseudomonal penicillin (ticarcillin, piperacillin) +/- ß lactamase inhibitor (clavulanate, tazobactam)

Alternative(s): Ceftazidime, cefepime, aztreonam, imipenem, ciprofloxacin

19

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Bacteroides while waiting for culture results

1st line: Metronidazole Alternative(s): Clindamycin

20

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Mycoplasma while waiting for culture results

1st line: Erythromycin, azithromycin

Alternative(s): Doxycycline

21

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Treponema pallidum while waiting for culture results

1st line: Penicillin

Alternative(s): Doxycycline

22

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Chlamydia while waiting for culture results

1st line: Doxycycline, azithromycin

Alternative(s): Erythromycin, ofloxacin

23

Specify which empirical antibiotic should be used for Lyme disease (Borrelia spp.) while waiting for culture results

1st line: Cefuroxime, doxycycline, amoxicillin

Alternative(s): Erythromycin

24

Specify what a Gram stain of Blue/purple color most likely represents.

Gram-positive organism

25

Specify what a Gram stain of Red color most likely represents.

Gram-negative organism

26

Specify what a Gram stain of Gram-positive cocci in chains most likely represents.

Streptococci

27

Specify what a Gram stain of Gram-positive cocci in clusters most likely represents.

Staphylococci

28

Specify what a Gram stain of Gram-positive cocci in pairs (diplococci) most likely represents.

Streptococcus pneumoniae

29

Specify what a Gram stain of Gram-negative coccobacilli (small rods) most likely represents.

Haemophilus sp.

30

Specify what a Gram stain of Gram-negative diplococci most likely represents. 2

Neisseria sp. (sexually transmitted disease, septic arthritis, meningitis)

Moraxella sp. (lungs, sinusitis)