Infectious Disease, Exotic Conditions, Bioterror Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Infectious Disease, Exotic Conditions, Bioterror Deck (16)
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What is the primary bacteria involved in tuberculosis?

Mycobacterium tuberculosis; obligate aerobe


What % of TB cases occur in the lungs?



What are the 4 most common s\s of TB?

fever, weight loss, night sweats, fatigue


What is the Mantoux Skin Test?

skin test for TB


When does the results of the mantoux skin test need to be examined?

within 48-72 hours


What indicates a positive mantoux skin test? HIV patients?

induration > 10mm; AIDS induration > 5mm


What presentation on a chest radiograph is indicative of severe tuberculosis?



Where will infiltrates most commonly be seen on a chest radiograph?

apical infiltrates


What are the 2 most common antibiotics prescribed for TB?

rifampicin and isoniazid


Why is it suggested that only "highly susceptible" populations or individuals receive the TB vaccination (bacillus Calmette-Guerin--BCG)?

it makes the TB skin test falsely positive; may not confer immunity (and the immunity it does induce decreases after 10 years)


Which toxin involved in c-diff is the most cytotoxic?

Toxin B is 1000x more cytotoxic than A


After how many days of antibiotic therapy does a patients risk of c-diff double?

after 3 days


What is the difference in c-diff colonization and infection?

both test + for c-diff organism and/or toxin; colonization is MORE COMMON; infection occurs with + test and presentation of clinical symptoms: watery diarrhea, fever, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain/distention


What is the primary cause of malaria?

parasitic protozoans of genus Plasmodium; female mosquito (anopheles gambiae)


CDC has identified 3 categories of bioterror agents and diseases. What are included in these categories?

A: anthrax, botulism, plague, smallpox, tularemia, viral hemorrhagic fevers
B: brucellosis, food safety threats, ricin toxin
C: emerging diseases such as Hanta virus or Nipah virus


What are the main differences in the CDC classes for bioterror agents?

A: highest priority... easily disseminated or transmissible... high mortality
B: moderately easy to disseminate; moderate morbidity and low mortality
C: emerging pathogens with potential for availability, easy of production/dissemination, high morbidity and mortality